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Full text of "Report of the Pennsylvania Department of Forests and Waters, 1924-1926"


YEAR 



Author: Pennsylvania Department of Forests and Waters 

Title: Report of the Pennsylvania Department of Forests 

and Waters, 1924-1926 

Place of Publication: Harrisburg, Pa. 

Copyright Date: 1926 

Master Negative Storage Number: MNS# PSt SNPaAg072.4 



1924-1926 



REPORT 



OF THE 




DEPARTMENT of FORESTS and WATERS 



COMMONWEALTH OF PENNSYLVANIA 




♦ wJf • 



JUNE 1. 1924 to MAY 31, 1926 






LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL 

Plon. (iifford Pinchot, 
Go\'ernor of Pennsylvania, 
Harrisburg, Pa. 

Dear Governor Pinchot: 

1 have the honor to transmit herewith a report on the work of 
the Department of Forests and Waters for the two-year period 
June 1, 1924 to May 31, 1926, and the reports for the same period 
of the Boards and Commissions affiliated with it, viz: the *'State 
Forest Commission," **\Vater and Power Resources P.oard," "State 
Geographic Board," ^'Valley Forge Park Commission," ''Washing- 
ton Crossing I'ark Commission," **The Lake Erie and Ohio River 
Canal Board," and the *'State Park and Harbor Commission of 
Erie." 

This is the second biennial report of the Department of Forests 
and Waters, created under the reorganization Act of June 7, 1923. 
This new^ organization has now been in operation for more than 
three years. The results show conclusively the wisdom of the ad- 
ministration of the forest, water, and mineral resources of Pennsyl- 
vania under one Department. This new plan of organization has 
already effected a coordination of work and a cooperation in service 
that assures an efficient and economic handling of the resources 
entrusted to this Department. 

It i> also clear that the affiliation of the State ]\'irk Commissions 
with the Department has been effective not only in the supervision 
of budgetary matters but in close coordination of effort in the im- 
pr()\ ement and maintenance of the Park properties. 

The interest of the public in the development and wise use of our 
natural resources is increasing markedly. This attitude is reflected 
in the more generous public support given the work of the Depart- 
ment, and wider participation by j)rivate land owners in the restora- 
tion of forest and stream. The progress made, as described in the 
Department reports, is most gratifying and propitious. 

Respectfully yours, 

R. Y. STUART, 
Secretary of Forests and Waters. 

October 1, 1926 



:3) 



REPORT OF THE PENNSYLVANIA DEPARTMENT 

OF FORESTS AND WATERS FOR THE 

YEARS JUNE 1, 1924 TO 

MAY 31, 1926. 



The conservation of the forest, water, and mineral resources of 
Pennsylvania continues to be one of the most vital problems before 
her people. Little good can come from the consideration of con- 
servation unless we understand what it means. Conservation means 
the use of the earth and its natural resources for the greatest good 
of the greatest number of people for the longest time. The term 
"natural resources" may be broad enough to include all materials 
for the use of man on the surface of the earth such as soil and 
water, those below the surface, such as minerals, and those above 
the surface of which the forest is the most conspicuous example. 
These natural resources include the land on w^hich we live and 
from which we get our food and wood, the living waters which 
supply human needs, fertilize the soil, sustain fish life, supply power, 
and form the waterways of commerce, as well as the growing for- 
ests with their rich assortment of animal and plant life, and the 
many minerals which form the basis of our industrial life and pro- 
vide us with heat, light, and power. All these natural resources 
are a part of the big conservation movement. 

The thing for which conservation stands in Pennsylvania is 
the making of our State the best place to live in both for this and 
future generations. Some people have the false notion that con- 
servation means the locking up of resources for the future. There 
can be no more serious mistake, for the first principle of conserva- 
tion is wise use. A sound conservation program implies use, but 
it refuses to recognize wanton waste and needless destruction in 
the development of natural rsources. 

Pennsylvania's material progress would not have been possible 
without her rich heritage in natural resources which have been 
drawn upon extensively from the early days to meet man's needs, 
but in their exploitation have been subjected to abusive and destruc- 
tive methods. We do not know our forests down to the last cord, 
nor do we know our water resources down to the last cubic foot, 
nor our minerals to the last ton, but we know enough about our 
remaining natural resources to decide that the time is here to use 
conservative methods in handling them. 

(5) 



t1 



REPORT OF THE 



Off. Doc. 



There are more than ^ 3,000,000 acres of forest land in Pennsyl- 
vania capable of turning out, if properly handled, 10,000,000 cords 
of wood annually. Our water resources with an annual runoff of 
almost 2,000,000 million cubic feet are of inestimable w^orth for 
domestic and industrial water supplies, water power, and naviga- 
tion. The remaining mineral resources of Pennsylvania still hold 
for her the appropriate title "The Industrial Titan'' among the 
states of the Union. 

Pennsylvania will continue after we are gone. Others are 
coming to take our places. They have rights and we must respect 
them. They will have need for the same kind of natural resources 
with which we have been blessed so bountifully. We cannot be 
reproached for the withdrawal of all the wood, water, and minerals 
we use wisely. We have a right to all that are necessary for our 
safety, comfort, and happiness, but beyond that we have no right 
to draw. A wise conservation program aims to provide an equitable 
distribution of resources between present and future generations. 
We wmII act the part of good citizens if we bestow upon our child- 
ren a wisely conserved heritage of forest, water, and mineral re- 
sources. Such a conservation policy will make Pennsylvania a 
better place in which our boys and girls and their boys and girls 
can become the kind of men and women we want them to be. 

Pennsylvania is now rightly committed to a wise program of 
forest, water, and mineral conservation, and has delegated powers 
and duties to the Department of Forests and Waters for the ad- 
vancement of this work. 



The appropriations by the 1925 State Legislature for the work 
of this Department and related boards and commissions, for the 
present biennium (June 1, 1925-May 31, 1927) follow: 



Salary of the Secretary 

The Forest Service: 

General forest service expenditures 
Extinction and control of forest fires 
Fixed charges on State Forests and 
auxiliary forest reserves (school, 
, road, and county taxes) 
Injuries from fighting forest fires 
Repairs to Laurel Dam 

The Water Service: 
T.ock Haven Dvke 
Matamoras Dvke 



$16,000.00 



$1,175,030.00 
200,000.00 



115,970.00 

6,000.00 

10,000.00 



1,507,000.00 



$3,500.00 
2,963.77 



No. 7 



' 



-V 



DEPARTMENT OF FORESTS AND WATERS 



Water & Power Resources Board, 
Engineer 

General expenses of Water Re- 
sources Service 

Delaware River Treaty Expenses 

County and Township Tax, Pyma- 
tuning Project 



6,000.00 

125,000.00 
15,000.00 

5,274.00 \S7,72>7.77 



Topographic and Geologic Survey- 
State Park Boards and Commissions: 
Fort Washington Park, interest 

on mortgages 
Washington Crossing Park Com- 

sion 
Valley Forge Park Commission 
State Park and Harbor Commission 
Cooperative Harbor work at Erie 
Lake PLrie and Ohio River Canal Board 



135,000.00 



$5,010.00 

120,000.00 

250,000,00 

75,000.00 

25,000.00 

5,000.00 



Grand Total 



480,010.iX) 



$2,295,747.77 



In order that the problems and activities of the Department 
during the past two years may be properly interpreted and under- 
stood, this report is divided into four main parts, namely: 

THE FOkEST SERVICE 

THE WATER SERVICE 

THE TOPOGRAPHIC AND GEOLOGIC SURVEY 

STATE PARK BOARDS AND COMMISSIONS 

THE FOREST SERVICE 

During the last two years substantial progress in forestry has 
been made in Pennsylvania. We now have better forest protectiop, 
more extensive tree planting, greater recreational use of the State 
Forests, and more effective cooperation by the people of the State 
in all phases of forest work than ever before. To carry on the 
work of the State Forest Service the 1925 State Legislature made 
an appropriation of $1,507,000 for the biennium June 1, 1925 to May 
31, 1927. In this total were specific appropriations of $200,000 for 
the extinction and control of forest fires, $115,970 for fixed charges 
(school, road, and county taxes) on State Forests and auxiliary 
forest reserves, $6,000 for injuries to persons fighting forest fires, 
and $10,000 for repairs to Laurel Dam in Cumberland county. 



« REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

The comparative table that follows shows the trend of appro- 
priations for forestry in Pennsylvania: 

Years Amount 

1893-1895 $20,000.00 

1895-1897 12,820.00 

1897-1899 20,019.01 

1899-1901 r. 49,072.41 

1901-1903 218,249.14 

1903-1905 740,724.35 

1905-1907 820,730.70 

1907-1909 857,500.00 

1909-1911 663,500.00 

1911-1913 673,500.00 

1913-1915 664,438.94 

1915-1917 630,750.00 

1917-1919 ; 807,000.00 

1919-1921 1,071,700.00 

1921-1923 1,870,000.00 

1923-1925 1,315,000.00 

1925-1927 1,523,000.00 



$11,958,004.55 



PROGRESS IN FOREST PROTECTIOI^ 

There is now in effect a comprehensive forest protection plan 
and a State-wide organization of forest fire fighters comprising 48 
foresters, 61 forest rangers, and 3,800 forest fire wardens. The most 
noteworthy achievement in forest protection is the rapid decrease 
in the average size of forest fires. This is a good gauge of efficiency 
in forest fire control. During the three year period (1913-15) the 
size of the average fire was 339 acres; during the five year period 
(1916-20) it was 142 acres, while during the last five year period it 
was only 79 acres. During 1924, 1,947 forest fires were reported 
and extinguished in the State. The average area of these fires was 
only 48 acres. In 1925, there were 2,562 fires with an average area 
of 485 acres. During these two years the area of the average fire 
was less than in any year since the Department has kept records- 
The estimated forest fire damage in 1924 was $204,296.60, and in 
1925, $760,715.28, making a total of $965,011.88 during the last two 
years. 

The fire season during the spring of 1926 was unusually long 
and as severe as any fire season experienced by the Department. 
The fires were hard to extinguish and very difficult to keep under 
control. From the middle of April to the middle of May there was 
a severe drought accompanied with high and dry winds over the 



No. 7 



DEPARTMENT OF FORESTS AND WATERS 



Average 
Anntuvl 
Number 

of 
Fires 

1,070 

1,458 

2,828 



Average 
Area 
Per 
Fire 
(acres) 

339 

142 

79 



entire State- In some forest districts 30 days elapsed with less than 
one-tenth of an inch of rainfall In spite of these unfavorable con- 
ditions the size of the average fire was kept down to 81.5 acres. 
There have been only two spring fire seasons — 1924 and 1925— 
with a lower average. 

The forest fires of Pennsylvania by periods from 1913 to 1925 
follow : 

Average 
Annual 
Years Area 

Burned 
(acres) 
1913-15 362,408 

' 1916-20 207,934 

1921-25 223,508 

Never in the history of the Department did the people respond 
more fully to the forest fire situation than in the spring of 1926. 
Special forest protection organizations in all parts of the State are 
giving hearty and helpful cooperation. In a number of cases Dis- 
trict Foresters could not use advantageously all the people who 
volunteered to fight the fires- It is becoming obvious that the pub- 
lic conscience is aroused to the menace of forest fires- 

During the last four years the forest fire detection and extinc- 
tion forces have been greatly strengthened. Observation towers 
have been increased and the telephone lines extended. There are 
now 115 forest observation towers in use. The inspection and re- 
moval of fire hazards has been given special attention, and those 
responsible for forest fires have been charged fully with their re- 
sponsibility. With the concurrence of the Attorney General, legal 
assistance has been secured in making a careful study of the forest 
fire laws of the State and in conducting prosecutions. As a result, 
there have been more prosecutions and more convictions, and there 
is developing a better public understanding of the consequences of 
forest fires. 

The progress of forest protection in Pennsylvania means that 
a material advance has been made in forest restoration. As a result 
of this effective protection work the timber production ledger of 
Pennsylvania is changing from heavy and unnecessary losses to 
substantial and growing gains. For the first time in many years the 
wood grown in the forests of Pennsylvania is greater than destroyed 
by fire. This means that Pennsylvania is gradually regaining her 
place as a great timber producing state. 

FOREST LAND PURCHASE PROGRAM 
No appropriation for the purchase of forest land has been made 
by the last three legislatures. The last appropriation was made in 
1919, when $130,000 were appropriated for the purchase of forest 



10 



REPORT OF THE 



Off. Doc. 



land and $6,000 for forest land surveys. Through the lack of ap- 
propriation the land purchase program has dwindled to an almost 
negligible figure. During the last few years the State came into 
possession of small areas of forest land through deferred acquisition 
due to questions in title, and by special gifts. The acreage acquired 
by years follows: 



Year 

1923 
1924 
1925 



Area Acquired 
Acres Perches 

766 46 

334 61 

172 43 



Total 



1,272 



150 



The total area of forest land owned by the State on May 31, 
1926 was 1,131,783 acres, 62 perches. This land was acquired at a 
total purchase price of $2,560,298.25, an average of $2.26 per acre. 
The present purchase program calls for a bond issue of $25,000,000 
for the purchase of forest land by the State. 

THE FOREST BOND ISSUE 

The most progressive step in Pennsylvania forestry during the 
last four years is the advance given the proposed bond issue of 
$25,000,000 for the purchase by the State of approximately 3,50O,aX) 
acres of idle forest land. A resolution to amend the State constitu- 
tion, so that the forest bond issue may be authorized, passed the 
1923 and 1925 sessions of the legislature. This proposal is now 
ready to be submitted to the people- The Supreme Court decided, 
however, that a vote of the people on this and other proposed 
amendments to the constitution could not be taken until the Novem- 
ber, 1928, election. 

While the vote on the Bond Issue must be delayed for two 
more years, the people of the State are maintaining interest in this 
important issue, which is so urgently needed to safeguard the wood 
needs and the general welfare of the State. This comprehensive 
plan of forest land acquisition is also necessary to secure adequate 
water supplies and opportunities for public recreation and public 
health. The best way to insure adequate timber supplies, public 
play grounds, hunting and fishing grounds, and health centers for 
all our people and to protect our water supplies is to maintain large 
areas of publicly owned forest land in all parts of the State. Future 
citizens need the protection and privileges afforded by State-owned 
forest land — a heritage that is justly theirs. The State-owned lands 
are managed to bring the greatest measure of good to the greatest 
number of people. With 27 years of experience in forest land ac- 



No. 7 



DEPARTMENT OF FORESTS AND WATERS 



11 



quisition and management, Pennsylvania is well prepared to go 
forward with a sound and practical purchase program of enlarging 
her forest holdings- 

STATE FOREST RECEIPTS 

, The State of Pennsylvania began purchasing forest land in 
1898. When the land was acquired there was little tree growth up- 
on most of it. In spite of the deplorable conditions that existed on 
the State Forests at the time the land was acquired, a considerable 
income has already been received from it. 

The first receipts from the State Forests, amounting to $1,227.87 
were obtained in 1900. The revenue was made up from the sale 
of lumber, poles, fuel wood, minerals, and from rentals, leases, and 
other privileges on the State Forests. The rate at which the in- 
come has increased is shown in the following two tables, which 
set forth the income during the first four and the last four years 
of State ownership : 

First Four Year.«5 of Income From State Forests (1900-1903) 

Year Amount 

1900 ^ $1,227.87 

1901 1,951.57 

1902 1,578.70 

1903 9,758.02 



Total 



$14,516.16 



Last Four Years of Income From State Forests (1922-1925) 

Year Amouni 

1922 $45,31157 

1923 80,275-90 

1924 88,199.56 

1925 68,607.28 



Total 



$282,394.31 



The foregoing tables show that during the first four years of 
State Forest ownership, only $14,516.16 were derived from the sale 
of forest products, while during the last four years a total of $282,- 
39431 were derived. The income during the last four years is almost 
equal to the total income during the first 22 years (19(X)-1921) of 
State Forest ownership. 

The total receipts from the State Forests up to January 1, 1926 
totaled $587,930.95, of which $344,464.50 have been deposited in the 
State School fund. The moneys deposited in the State School Fund 
to date are listed in the following table : 



12 

Year 

Prior to 1920 
1920 
1921 
1922 
1923 
1924 
1925 



Total to January 1, 1926 



REl'OUT OF THE 



Off. Doc. 



f> 



i) 



ft 



» 



t> 



I 



Amount 

$190,889.48 
32,225.37 
18,272.10 
26,985.39 
24,324.41 
25,359.06 
26,408.69 

$344,464.50 



The foregoing table shows that the receipts from the State 
Forests are gradually building up the State School Fund- As the 
forests become mature and cuttting operations become more exten- 
sive, the income will be increased considerably. Before many years 
the School Fund will be built up to such an extent that the forests 
will be a big factor in maintaining the schools of the State. 

Between January 1, 1926 and May 31, 1926, a total of $8,813.94 
was deposited in the State School Fund. The main items were camp 
leases $3,153.10, wood on the stump $2,399.50, and minerals $2,104.59. 

STATE FOREST IMPROVEMENTS 

During the last two years 32 new buildings have been erected 
on the State Forests at a total cost of $42,697-73. Among these 
buildings are 5 dwellings, 7 shops and sheds, and 4 barns. In this 
period more than 90 miles of roads and about 100 miles of trails 
were opened. The Department now maintains 1,318 miles of road 
and 2,544 miles of trails. At the last session of the legislature the 
State Department of Highways was authorized to spend $100,000 
annually in the construction and maintenance of roads within the 
State Forests. There are now in operation 115 forest fire towers 
constructed at a total cost of about $115,000. These permanent im- 
provements insure better handling of the forests and make them 
available to a wider public use. 

Of even greater significance than these permanent improve- 
ments is the obvious improvement in the condition of the forests 
in all parts of the State. The State's program of forest restoration 
has brought about a great change. In many places where formerly 
occurred vast stretches of barren land there are now found promis- 
ing stands of thrifty trees. The 1,131,783 acres of State Forests, 
purchased by the State at an average price of $2.26 per acre, repres- 
ent a total net gain to the State of more than $5,000,000 since their 
acquisition. This State-owned forest land is handled as a business 
enterprise and with continuous management it will yield increasing- 
ly higher returns. 



• 



No. 7 



DEPARTMENT OF FORESTS AND WATERS 



13 



RECREATION ON THE STATE FORESTS 

More people now use the State Forests for rest and recreation 
than ever before. Records show that in 1925 approximately 850,(X)0 
people were guests on the State Forests. Among these were 32,000 
fishermen and 185,000 hunters- Not less than 130,000 people enjoyed 
themselves in the State Forest Parks, and more than 60,000 visited 
the 115 forest observation towers that now dot the entire State. 

To meet this great public need, special areas have been set aside 
for recreational use. There are now within the State Forests 7 
State Forest Parks, 9 State Forest Monuments, 3 Special Scenic 
Areas, and 36 Public Camping Grounds. The use of all these recrea- 
tional areas is free to the public. They are the people's playground. 
There are now more than 1,500 permanent camp sites on the 
State Forests of Pennsylvania. During 1925 about 80,000 people 
enjoyed the shade, shelter, and comforts of these outdoor homes. 
These camp sites are leased at the nominal rental of $700 to $15.00 
per year. During 1925 the income to the State from these camp 
site leases was $12,611.25. 

Legitimate hunting and fishing is encouraged on the State- 
owned forest land of Pennsylvania. Many hunters select the State 
Forests as their best hunting ground, and within them one finds 
some of the finest fishing streams. During 1924, 4,055 d^er and 412 
bear, and in 1925, 5,091 deer and 185 bear were killed on the State 
Forests of Pennsylvania. Reliable records show that 58 per cent of 
the deer and 42 per cent of the bear killed in the entire State came 
from the State Forests. It cannot be denied that the State Forests 
are the favored hunting grounds of the Pennsylvania sportsman. 
Without good forests there can be no game or fish worthy of the 

sportsman's skill. 

Large Boy Scout and Girl Scout camps are located on the State 
Forests. Here the boys and girls study tree life and take lessons 
in forest conservation. Apart from the practical value, these tree 
environments make for better manhood and womanhood by inspir- 
ing higher thoughts and cleaner ideas about life. 

There are now 36 Public Camps on the State Forests of Pennsyl- 
vania. Twenty-five of these have been erected during the last four 
years and ten during the period of this report. More than 125.000 
people enjoyed themselves at these outdoor play places during 1925. 
These camps are equipped with shelters, tables, and other simple 
camping facilities- Adequate supplies of fresh water are found at 
or near them. Thev are available to all who wish to go in the 
out of doors and enjov nature. Better health and greater happiness 
await all who visit them. The State Forests of Pennsylvania pay 
bio- health dividends to all who visit these beauty spots and enjoy 
the camping facilities available for everybody. 



14 



REPORT OF THE 



Off. Doc. 



FOREST TREE PLANTING ON THE STATE FORESTS 

During the last four years almost two million trees have been 
planted on the State Forests. Since 1899 when tree planting started 
on the State Forests, a total of 36,257,009 trees have been set out 
on State-owned forest land. The number of trees planted on the 
State Forests and the area reforested dunng the last four years is 
given in the following table: 



Year 

192S 

1924 

1925 

1926 (spring) 



Number of 
Trees Planted 

551,462 
424,380 
362,100 
560,525 



Area 
faicres) 

429.96 
306.27 
290.65 
427.23 



Cost 

$1,133.34 
4,878.31 
3,721.71 
4,815.59 



The State Forest plantations are doing more than merely pro- 
ducing wood. They are object lessons in practical forestry. They 
show what may be expected if forest trees are planted. Some of 
the trees in the State Forest plantations have already reached a 
height of 45 feet and a diameter at breast-high of 10 inches. These 
plantations show what may be done to make idle land productive. 

The demand for planting stock by private owners has been so 
great that the planting on the State Forests, relatively less urgent, 
has been somewhat curtailed so as to make possible the immediate 
reforestation of the many acres of privately-owned forest land that 
were absolutely unproductive and an economic menace. 

The plantations on the State Forests have shown many private 
owners of forest land how to handle their unproductive land. In 
the State plantations have been established demonstration areas 
which are used primarily to show the way to practice good forestry 
on many thousand acres of unproductive land in Pennsylvania. 
Many special study plots have also been established in the State 
plantations from which is collected valuable information about the 
growth and yield of our forest trees. The State plantations have 
been a big factor in promoting reforestation and are yielding valu- 
able information that is urgently needed in developing efficient 
methods of handling the forests of the State. 

TREE PLANTING BY PRIVATE OWNERS OF FOREST LAND 

Pennsylvania is one of the leading forest tree planting states. 
Tn 1910 the S^ate began distributing forest tree planting stock grown 
in the State Nurseries to private land owners at the cost of produc- 
tion. In 1915 a new plan of tree distribution was inaugurated. 



No. 7 



DEPARTMENT OP FORESTS AND WATERS 



15 



Under this new plan forest tree planting stock is made available 
to private owners of forest land located within the State at the cost 
of boxing and shipping. This is the most generous forest tree 
planting plan offered on a large scale by any state and it has been 
a big factor in promoting the reforestation of idle land. 

During the 17 years the Department has cooperated in this tree 
planting program, more than 50,000,000 trees have been shipped 
from the State Nurseries to reforest land within the State. Year 
by year the land owners of the State are becoming better acquainted 
with the merits of forest tree planting, and as a result the reforesta- 
tion of idle acres is moving forward by leaps and bounds. A com- 
parison of the results of this tree planting program during the first 
five years after its inauguration and during the last five years is 
show^n in the following table: 



Year 

1910 

1911 


FIRST FIVE YEARS 
1910-1914 

Number of 

Planters 

23 

24 


Tr 


umher of 
ees Planied 
66,374 

25,360 


1912 

1913 

1914 


20 
25 
42 

• 


66,854 

47,770 

108,685 



Total 

LAST FIVE YEARS 
\ 1922-1926 

Number of 
Year Planters 

1922 1,323 

1923 1,572 

1924 2,081 

1925 • 2,156 

1926 (spring) . 2,403 

Total 



315,043 



X umher of 
Trees PI a fifed 
3,670.621 

5,437,817 

8,577,464 

8,604.091 

9,167,916 

35,457,909 



These two tables show the enormous increase of private forest 
tree planting in Pennsylvania. During the first five years the an- 
nual plantinjr averaecd only about 63,000 trees, w^hile it has now al- 
most reached the 10.000.000 mark. More than 100 times as many 
trees were planted during the last five years as in the first five 
years, 1910-14. In 1925, 75 times as many trees were planted as 



16 



REPORT OF THE 



Off. Doo. 



in 1915, just ten years earlier. At no time since the World War 
have the State Nurseries been able to meet the demand of private 
land ov^ners for tree planting stock. About 20 million trees will 
be available in the nurseries of this Department for planting in the 
spring of 1927. This is more than twice as many as have been 
available in any previous planting season. The rate at which for- 
est tree planting has increased is one of the most gratifying features 
of the forestry movement. It shows that the people of Pennsyl- 
vania are attempting to solve the idle land problem and beginning 
to appreciate the merits of reforestation. 

ROADSIDE TREE PLANTING 

During the last five years special efforts have been made to make 
the roadways of Pennsylvania more beautiful. In this work the 
Department of Forests and Waters and the State Highway Depart- 
ment have cooperated. Under this cooperative arrangement there 
have been planted along the highways of the State 17,070 trees 
at a total cost of $25,909.62, an average of $1.52 per tree. 

Kind of Trees. 



Year 



1921 

1922 

if>2:i 

1924 

1925 

1926 (spring) 



1926 (spring-) 



Oriental 
Plane 


Norway 
Spruce 


Other 


5,319 
6,291 
1,387 
3,729 




165 




654 
25 








600 










16,23fi 


079 


166 



Total 
Cost 



Cost 
Per Tree 



$7,588.71 
7,037.gr 
2,759.14 
7,883.90 



640.00 



$25,909.62 



$1.38 
1.33 
l..V> 
2.09 



1.28 



$1.52 



Of the 17,070 trees planted, 5,946 were used for replacements. 
In 1923, 1924 and 1926, 1,692, 3,754 and 500 trees respectively were 
used to replace trees that had not succeeded in the original plant- 
ings of 1921 and 1922. 

The trees were, in most cases, planted on both sides of the high- 
way, except where obstructions prevented, in which cases the trees 
were planted only on one side of the highway. These planted trees, 
spaced 60 feet apart, add greatly to the attractiveness of about 75 
miles of Penn's Highways. 

FOREST TREE NURSERIES 

Three large and two small forest tree nurseries are operated on 
the State Forests by the Department of Forests and Waters, and 
eight additional nurseries are operated cooperatively by this Depart- 
ment and State institutions. In addition to these, a large central 
forest tree nursery, covering 100 acres, was established in 1925. 
The nurseries on the State Forests cover 30 acres, with an annual 



Mo. 7 



DEPAKTMEJNT OF FORESTS AND WATERS 



•-V 



• > • 



17 



capacity of almost 8,000,000 trees. The cooperative nurseries at 
State Institutions cover 20-5 acres and have an annual capacity of 
3,000,000 trees. The cooperative nurseries are located at the Alien - 
town State Hospital at Allentown, Danville State Hospital at Dan- 
ville, Harrisburg State Hospital at Harrisburg, Torrance State Hos- 
pital in Westmoreland county, Wernersville State Hospital at 
Wernersville, the Pennsylvania Industrial Reformatory at Hunting- 
don, the Polk State School at Polk, and the Western Penitentiary 
at Rockview. The nurseries at the Industrial Reformatory at 
Huntingdon and the Western Penitentiary at Rockview are the 
larger of the cooperative nurseries. The former has an annual 
capacity of 1,000,000 trees and the latter 2,000,000 trees. The nurs- 
ery activities at these institutions afford healthful and constructive 
outdoor work for those most in need of it- 

In order to supply the rapidly growing demands for forest tree 
planting stock, a large central nursery was established in the fall 
of 1925. It is located along the Susquehanna Trail, in Northumber- 
land county, five miles south of Milton. The area of this nursery 
is a hundred acres. In the fall of 1925, 220 bushels of walnuts and 
46 bushels of red oak acorns were planted in this nursery. Early 
in the spring of 1926 nursery operations were started on a large 
scale. By June 1, 1926, 993 pounds of white pine, red pine, Scotch 
pine, Norway spruce, and Japanese larch seeds had been planted. 
There were also set out in this nursery 440,(XX) small trees for 
special transplant stock. In addition, more than 31,000 trees were 
transplanted in the nursery to be used later as special ornamental 
planting stock on the public grounds at State institutions. In this 
nursery almost 8 acres of land have already been put to the grow- 
ing of forest trees from seed, and about 10 acres to the growing of 
transplants. This is now the largest forest tree nursery operated 
by the Department, and when its capacity is attained an ample 
supply of forest tree planting stock will be available to meet the 
reforestation needs in all parts of the State. 

DEMONSTRATION AREAS 

The current trend in forestry is toward practical demonstration. 
Forest land owners are willing to do more work in their forests, 
but they want to know how to do it and be sure their work is done 
right. The average forest land owner may be willing to read a 
little about forestry and to be told a few things about forestry, but 
what he wants is to be shown forestry in a practical way- To meet 
this urgent need there have been established special demonstration 
areas in all parts of the State covering many phases of forest work 

The first demonstration area was established in the Mont Alto 
State Forest in Franklin county in 1903. Since then 50 additional 



18 



REPORT OF THE 



Off. l)oc. 



areas have been set aside for demonstration purposes, both on the 
State Forests and on privately owned land. Twenty-five of these 
vere established during the last two years. These demonstration 
areas have been developed on a wide range of forest conditions and 
cover many different phases of forest operations. They cover the 
entire field of forest tree planting, show the results of forest protec- 
tion, illustrate different methods of forest improvement work, proper 
thinning methods, and other lines of forest work. 

As a rule, each of these areas is laid out to show some special 
phase of forest work. The information gathered on these special 
areas is of great value in determining forestry methods which are 
silviculturally feasible and economically recommendable. These 
demonstration areas are more than mere show places- They are 
important study places, for they yield valuable technical informa- 
tion about growth and yield of our forests, and give the cost of 
different forest operations. Present plans call for a rapid extension 
of this important line of work. Not less than 25 new plots will 
be established during the next year. 

SPECIAL RESEARCH STUDIES 

To handle the forest problems of Pennsylvania properly re- 
quires continuous study. There are now in progress under the 
direction of the research workers of this Department more than 50 
special study projects covering practically all phases of forestry 
work. Among the principal research projects are: 

1. THE FOREST SrrUATION OF PENNSYLVANIA. This 
is a progressive study of the forest area, forest growth, forest yield, 
wood production and wood consumption of the State. A bulletin 
has been published on this subject- A new edition of it is now in 
preparation. 

2. FOREST TYPES OF PENNSYLVANIA. This study 
gives special attention to the composition of our forests by listing 
the principal forest types within the State with their chief indicator 
species, also their distribution and their major physical peculiari- 
ties. 

3. THE BIRCH, BEECH AND MAPLE TYPE IN 
PENNSYLVANIA. This project comprises a study of the oc- 
curence of this important forest type, which is widely distributed 
in northern Pennsylvania. Special consideration is given to its 
composition, growth, yield, best method of handling it, and the ef- 
fects of forest fires on its development. 



No. 7 



DEPARTMENT OF FORESTS AND WATERS 



19 



4. SPECIAL TREE STUDIES. Among the 110 trees native 
to Pennsylvania are a number that are of special importance. To 
collect information about them special tree studies have been under- 
taken. The most important of these studies now in progress are : 

1. Red Pine in Pennsylvania 

2. Pitch Pine in Pennsylvania 

3. Black Locust in Pennsylvania 

4. Chestnut Oak in Pennsylvania 

During the last two years two special tree studies have been 
completed. They are **The Ailanthus Tree in Pennsylvania'* and 
"The Cottonwood in Pennsylvania". The report on the former has 
been published as Bulletin 38 of this Department 

5. FOREST FIRE STUDIES. Forest fires continue to be 
the greatest enefny of the woodlands of Pennsylvania. To help 
handle the fire situation the following studies are in progress : 

1. Forest Fire Hazard Survxy 

2. Forest Fire Fighting Equipment and Technique 

3. Assessment of Forest Fire Damage 

4. The Slash Disposal Problem 

5. Huckleberry Production w^ith and without Forest Fires. 

6. REFORESTATION STUDIES. How to put the idle for- 
est land of Pennsylvania to work and keep it at work producing 
wood and other human benefits is one of the big and vital problems 
of the day. In order to help promote this important line ol work 
the following study projects have been undertaken: 

1. Source of Forest Tree Seed 

2. Nursery Fertilizer Experiments 

3. Sterilization of Nursery Beds 

4. Winter Storage of Nursery Stock 

5. Direct Seeding Experiments 

6. Age of Planting Stock 

7. Seedlings versus Transplants 

8. Fall versus Spring Planting 

9. Forest Tree Planting Methods and Technique 

10. Spacing of Seedlings and Transplants 

11. Introduction of Foreign Trees 

12. Forest Conversion Studies 

13. Liberation Cutting Experiments 

14. Results of Private Forest Tree Planting 

7. GROWTH AND YIELD STUDIES. There is urgent need 
for more and better information about the growth and yield of the 



20 



REPORT OF THE 



Off. Doc. 



important forest trees of Pennsylvania. To assist in the collection 
of this information more than 50 sample plots have been established, 
35 of which are on the State forests. Among the major grov^th 
and yield studies now in progress are: 

1. Growth and Behavior of White Pine in Pennsylvania 

2. Growth and Behavior of Scotch Pine in Pennsylvania 

3. Growth and Behavior of Norway Spruce in Pennsylvania 

4. Growth and Behavior of European Larch in Pennsylvania 

5. Growth and Behavior of White Oak in Pennsylvania 

6. Sub-soil Dynamiting for Growth Acceleration 

7. Experimental Thinning and Pruning. 

8. WOOD INDUSTRY STUDIES. Special studies are in 
progress covering three of the major wood-using industries. They 
are: 

1. The Hardwood Distillation Industry in Pennsylvania 

2. The Pulpwood Industry in Pennsylvania 

3. The Tanning Industry in Pennsylvania 

A full list of the major forest studies of this Department in- 
(^luding those of the State Forest School at Mont Alto, has been 
prepared for the Allegheny Section of the Society of American 
Foresters. It will be published shortly, and should be very helpful 
in promoting the practice of forestry in Pennsylvania.- 

PUBLIC COOPERATION AND EDUCATION 
This Department is continuing its cooperation with private 
forest land owners by making examinations of forest land in all 
parts of the state and giving recommendations for its proper handl- 
ing. For farm woodlots and other small forest properties these 
reports are prepared free of charge. Examinations of larger proper- 
ties are made and reports prepared thereon, but the owner pays the 
actual cost incurred in making examinations. During 1924, 624 
tracts, and in 1925, 463 tracts were examined. These 1,086 tracts 
aggregate 138,510 acres. Since 1920, when these examinations were 
started on a large scale, 1,939 tracts have been examined aggregat- 
ing 386,749 acres. 

The entire forestry personal of this Department continually 
stresses the need for sound forest practice through extension work, 
general and special demonstrations, personal conferences, public 
talks, moving pictures, and by special contributions to the press 
and periodicals. Information on all phases of forest work is made 
available to the forestry profession and the public. Important fores- 
try topics are placed before the public in signs and posters. In the 
last two years more than 150,000 posters and placards have been 



No. 7 



DEPARTMENT OF FORESTS AND WATERS 



2] 



distributed in all parts of the State. A special travelling exhibit 
visualizing the more important phases of forest work was shown at 
many fairs and other public gatherings. The most elaborate exhibit 
placed this year is in the Pennsylvania Building at the Sesqui-Cen- 
tennial in Philadelphia. It depicts the story of Penn's Woods in 
three epochs, namely, (1) The Primeval (Original) Forest; (2) 
Forest Devastation ; and (3) Forest Restoration. 

During the two year period covered by this report the State 
Forest Service distributed more than 400,000 copies of bulletins and 
circulars covering many phases of forest work. Among the princip- 
al new publications are: "The State Forests of Pennsylvania," ''In 
Penn's Woods," "Lessons in Forest Protection," "How to Prevent 
Forest Fires," "The Ailanthus Tree in Pennsylvania," "How to 
Use the State Forests," "Why Pennsylvania Needs more State 
Forests," "What Forest Protection Has Accomplished," "Plant 
Forest Trees on Idle Acres," "Forest Tree Planting Recommenda- 
tions," and "Forest Trees to Plant." Most of these new publica- 
tions were issued in editions of 5,000 to 10,000 copies each, but the 
demand for the illustrated handbooks on "The State Forests of 
Pennsylvania" and "In Penn's Woods" was so great that an edition 
of 100,000 copies of the former and 50,000 copies of the latter were 
required. All these bulletins are attractive in their make-up, written 
in simple style, and most of them are well illustrated. Because of 
these qualities they are in great demand in the public schools and 
in general educational work. During this biennium the fourth edi- 
tion (10,000 copies) of "Pennsylvania Trees" was issued and distri- 
buted, and an order was placed for the fifth edition of 20,000 copies. 
Revised and enlarged editions of "Guide to Forestry" and "Talks 
on Forestry" were also issued. 

A new forest map (5x9 feet) showing the location of the 
larger forest areas of the State was completed in 1925. This map 
shows that 47 per cent of the total land area of the State is in 
forests, whicif make up a total of 13,206,000 acres. The demand for 
Public Use Maps and for the State Forest Map showed a marked 
increase during this biennium, when more than 25,000 copies were 
distributed. 

In January, 1926, the first number of "The Forest Warden 
News" was issued. It is the official organ of the forest fire wardens 
of Pennsylvania, whose number increased from 3,200 to 3,800 dur- 
ing the period of this report. The forest fire wardens already show 
great interest in their new publication and it promises to do much 
good among these faithful watchers over Penn's Woods. The 
circulation of the Department's mimeographed weekly "Service Let- 



22 



REPORT OF THE 



Off. Doc. 



ter" almost doubled during the last two years. It is now distributed 
to more than 400 persons and organizations interested in the current 
\A'ork of the Department. Another important channel of helpful 
educational service is the growing army of Forest Guides of Pennsyl- 
\ania. This organization now numbers more than 25,000 Pennsyl- 
vania boys who have signed a pledge to help protect the forests of 
Pennsylvania and to urge others to help in this important conserva- 
tion work. 

STATE FOREST SCHOOL 

The State Forest School of Pennsylvania, with an enrollment 
of 79 students, now has the largest attendance since it establish- 
ment in 1903. The principal improvement during the last two 
years was the erection of a large school building. It was projected 
in the budget of 1924 and provided for in the appropriation of 
1926. It is a 3-story brick building 153 x 69 feet and fire proof 
throughout. The construction work was started late in 1925 and is 
to be completed for occupancy by January, 1927. When this build- 
ing with its laboratories, class rooms, library, chapel, museum, and 
other necessary appointments is completed, there will be accomoda- 
tions at the school for 100 students. The revised curriculum, the 
increased faculty, the enlarged buildings, and the improved equip- 
ment now available at the school make possible unsurpassed educa- 
tional facilities for practical instruction in forestry. 

Another important feature introduced into the school program 
is an annual study tour through the forests of central Europe. Three 
tours have already been completed with great success. These 
school journeys to the great forests of continental Europe, in many 
of which forestry has been practiced for more than 100 years, are 
very helpful to the students in interpreting their forestry lessons 
and fashioning goals for a sound forestry program. These trips 
are taken in charge of a regular instructor in forestry. Dr. C. A. 
Schenck, former director of the Biltmore Forest School, serves reg- 
ularly as a special guide in forestry. It is planned to make these 
trips a regular feature of the school program. 

The recent enlargement and revision of the school program is 
already showing good results. By adding a fourth year to the 
course of instruction and by increasing the faculty, the State For- 
est School was recognized by the College and University Council 
of the State and authorized to grant the degree of Bachelor of 
Science in Forestry. 

During the two school years 1924-25 and 1925-26, 34 men were 
graduated from the State Forest School. Records show that 30 per 



No. 7 



DEPARTMENT OF FORESTS AND WATERS 



23 



cent of these graduates are now in the service of the State of 
Pennsylvania, 17 per cent are in the U. S. Forest Service, 15 per 
cent in other State service, while the others arc employed elsewhere 
or are taking advanced work in forestry. 



I. 



THE WATER SERVICE 



Prior to June 15, 1923, the Water Supply Commission of Penn- 
sylvania had control over the water of the Commonwealth, except 
their purity, which was and continues to be a function of the State 
Department of Health and of the State Sanitary Water Board. The 
"Administrative Code" reorganized the Water Supply Commission 
under the name of "Water and Power Resources Board," and made 
it an administrative body in the Department of Forests and Waters. 
The powers and duties of the Water Supply Commission are now 
divided between the Water and Power Resources Board and the 
Water Resources Service within the Department of Forests and 
Waters.' The duties of the Water Resources Service are chiefly 
regulatory and investigatory in character, while the Water and 
Power Resources Board acts upon all applications for water power 
and water company charters, limited power and water supply per- 
mits, and permits for dams and other water obstructions. The com- 
plete report of the Water and Power Resources Board is appended 
to this report. 

EXAMINATION OF DAMS 

The Water Resources Service has made investigations and pre- 
pared reports in connection with all ai)i)lications presented to the 
Water and Power Resources Board. It has examined dams during 
construction to see that the plans and specifications arc being car- 
ried out, examined existing dams to determine their safety, and has 
investigated complaints with respect to water conditions in all parts 
of the state. One hundred applications were received during the 
biennium for the construction of new dams and 41 applications for 
repairs or alterations of existing dams. One hundred and eighteen 
permits were issued, 74 for new dams, 34 for repairs or alterations 
to existing dams, and 10 miscellaneous permits. The most import- 
ant dams for which permits were issued are the St'll Creek Dnni 
of the Panther Valley Water Company, and the Pickering Creek 
Dam of the Philadelphia Suburban Water Company. 

Six hundred and eighty-one applications for encroachments 
other than dams were received during the period of this report. 
Four hundred and thirty permits were issued for the construction 
of bridges, 9 for fills, and 179 for miscellaneous encroachments — a 
total of 618 permits. 



24 



REPORT OF THE 



ESTABLISHMENT OF CHANNEL LINES 



Off. Doc. 



During the past year channel lines have been established along 
the Schuylkill River at Manayunk betv^een the Flat Rock Dam and 
the mouth of the Wissahickon Creek — a distance of three miles. 
These adopted lines define the channel beyond which no encroach- 
ments will be permitted. These lines are defined by courses and 
distances and will be marked on the ground by a series of 90 monu- 
ments and bronze markers. Through co-operation with the city of 
York, channel lines were established along Codorus creek within 
the city limits for a distance of 2.2 miles. Surveys and engineering 
studies are being made and plans prepared for the establishment of 
channel lines along the Shenango River in the cities of New Castle 
and Sharon. 

THE PYMATUNING AND WALLENPAUPACK PROJECTS 

Work on the Pymatuning Reservoir Project during the past 
two years consisted largely in the administration of the land ac- 
quired by the State, the sale of some of the timber thereon, the 
maintenance and operation of stream gaging stations, and the pur- 
chase of additional land with the accumulated funds from rentals. 
Further details of this project are given in the Board's report to 
the Governor. 

The Wallenpaupack Hydro-Electric Project, described in the 
last biennial report and built under a permit issued January 16, 
1924, is now practically completed and in operation. A Depart- 
ment engineer was on this project from August 1, 1924 to December 
15, 1925. Lake Wallenpaupack, the storage reservoir of this pro- 
ject, is the largest body of water in the State. When full it covers 
5,760 acres and holds 70,500,000,000 gallons of water. A more com- 
plete statement on this project is included in the Board's report to 
the Governor. 

STREAM GAGING. FLOOD WARNING, AND PRECIPITATION 

There were 70 stream gaging stations in operation in Pennsyl- 
vania at the beginning of the period of this report. Ten new sta- 
tions were established and one discontinued, leaving 79 stations in 
operation on May 31, 1926. Plans and specifications are being pre- 
pared for the construction of wells and shelter houses for the in- 
stallation of automatic stage recorders at Harrisburg, Wilkes-Barre, 
Grater's Ford, and Sharon stations. The proposed stage recording 
equipment for Harrisburg and Wilkes-Barre are novel in their de- 
sign. At Harrisburg a chamber for the gage will be provided in 
one of the east plaza columns of the New Market Street bridge, 
with a well constructed in the abutment. At Wilkes-Barre the well 



No. 7 



DEPARTMENT OF FORESTS AND WATERS 



LT> 



will be located in one of the piers of the new Market Street bridge 
with a bronze kiosk shelter for the gage at the side of the bridge 
footwalk. The flood warning service was continued for the Sus- 
quehanna basin. During the period of this report there were four 
floods of sufficient magnitude to require warnings. Through the 
co-operation of District Foresters of this Department, the number 
of precipitation stations has been increased from 24 to 37. The new 
stations are located in Bedford and Westmoreland counties. The 
hydrographic data for the water years October 1, 1923 to Septem- 
ber 30. 1925, will be published in separate reports. 

THE CULM SITUATION 

During the period covered by the last Department report, 
January 1, 1922 to May 31, 1924, a study of the culm situatitjn and 
other mine refuse problems in the anthracite region, was begun. 
During the last two years this work was continued and enlarged 
to include the entire anthracite field. This study is being promoted 
to determine the location of stream channels that have become ob- 
structed with silt and culm; also the sources from which silt enters 
stream channels, the amount thereof, damage caused thereby, and 
methods employed for its removal from the waste water and its 
disposal. This w^ork is being conducted in co-operation with the 
Topographic and Geologic Survey of this Department and the U. 
S. Bureau of Mines. It includes the sampling and analysis of silt 
banks and deposits in stream channels and a study of methods used 
in the preparation of coal for the market and the recovery of fine 
sizes. During the progress of this study numerous conferences were 
arranged with coal operators and the Department hopes to secure 
the cooperation of many of them in planning for improved methods 
of culm disposal and the excavation of stream channels where con- 
ditions are particularly serious. A number of coal collieries have 
already adopted improved methods. With the development of this 
study less culm will find its way into the streams, and as a result 
better stream channels will be maintained. 



FLOOD PROBLEMS 

The city of Lock Haven, located chiefly on flat ground between 
Bald Eagle* Creek and the West Branch of the Susquehanna, has 
suffered severely from floods for many years. The first flood of 
record that did considerable damage occurred in 1847. Since then 
there have been four big floods, the most destructive occurring in 
June, 1889. Three of these floods were due to excessive precipita- 
tion, but the last flood, that of 191J?, was due to an ice jam in the 
river between Lock Haven and Williamsport. Sinpe 1918 the city 



26 



rkpOrt of the 



1 » f • I 



Off. Doc. 



^ 



V- 



If 



has been periodically threatened by inundation due to ice conditions 
in the river. Within the last year there was a partial overflow over 
the lower portion of the city. An appropriation of $3,500 was made 
under the act of May 12, 1925 for the purpose of making a survey 
and preparing plans and specifications that will relieve this danger- 
ous flood situation. The survey has been completed, and plans and 
estimates have been prepared of the cost of the work that should 
protect the city from future flood damage. 

The Department has also supervised repairs in the Matamoras 
Dike along the Delaware River at Matamoras, Pike county. By 
the Act of May 14, 1925, $3,000 was appropriated for this work. The 
work has been completed at a cost of $2,640.09 under a contract 
let August, 1925. 



* r^ 



t ,,. 



f ( 



'i:t{'i i« I 



THE LAUREL DAM PROJECT 

An Act of May 6, 1925 appropriated $10,000 for the purpose of 
repairing and dredging Laurel Dam in the Michaux State Forest, 
Cumberland county. The reservoir of this dam covers about 20 
acres and is the largest body of water in the South Mountains. The 
dam was built many years ago in connection with Laurel Forge. 
It was mainly of wood construction and the greater portion of the 
dam had deteriorated to such an extent that it was feared the dam 
would fail. As a safeguard against probable flood damage and also 
to improve the recreational facilities in the South Mountains, a 
specific appropriation was made for repairing and dredging this dam. 
Surveys were made and plans and specifications prepared by engin- 
eers of the Water Resources Service. The contract was awarded and 
the work was completed in the fall of 1925 at a cost of $8,842.10. 
The improved dam is a big asset in the development of the recrea- 
tional resources in this popular and growing forest community in 
the South Mountains. :hj«; i^ 

TOPOGRAPHIC AND GEOLOGIC SURVEY 

The Topographic and Geologic Survey of Pennsylvania was 
organized to make a ''thorough and extended survey" and to de- 
termine and broadcast knowledge of the "geology and topography 
of the State," of its "ores, coals, oils, clays, soils, fertilizing and 
other useful minerals, and of waters." The Survey is the eyes of 
the mining industry. The mining industry of Pennsylvania is 
the fundamental reason why this State, thirty-second in size, is 
second in population, industry, and wealth. Pennsylvania in 1923 
mined 23.6 per cent of all the minerals mined in the United States. 

While the Geological Survey, established in 1836, cannot claim 
the credit for the great development, it certainly has helped in no 



• • 



^ 



T 



• V • 



No. 7 



DEPARTMENT OF FORESTS AND WATERS 



27 



small measure to bring it about. The magnitude of mining and 
metallurgy in Pennsylvania is expressed at the Sesqui-Centennial 
at Philadelphia by a gold obelisk containing 46 cubic feet, and re- 
presenting a value in gold of $16,683,000, equivalent to the value of 
two days' production of the mines and smelters. 

SPECIAL PROJECTS AND REPORTS 

June 1, 1924 the Survey was engaged on 28 geologic projects; 
June 1, 1926, 9 of these had been completed and reports either were 
published or in press; 2 others were completed, to be published by 
the U. S. Geological Survey ; 10 more were nearly completed. 
Eleven new geologic projects were started, of which 3 were com- 
pleted. 

Projects in hand or completed during the bicnnium : 

Detailed geologic mapping 15 

Coal 6 

Oil and gas 2 

Clay 1 

Building stone 3 

Molding sand 1 

Metallic ores 5 

Underground water 1 

General geology 1 

County reports 2 

P>ase map and geologic map (State) 2 

The Survey has received many calls from other departments of 
the State, including the Departments of Health, Banking, Public 
Instruction, and Welfare, for information, some of which has in- 
volved field trips. 

Out of the ordinary was a field meeting of the Association of 
American State Geologists in Pennsylvania in the fall of 1925. to 
which the Pennsylvania Survey members acted as hosts. The 
State Geologist attended the International Geological Congress in 
Madrid, Spain^ in May, 1926. 

TOPOGRAPHIC WORK 

During the two years, June 1, 1924 to May 31, 1926, the Survey 
in cooperation with the U. S. Geological Survey, has mapped topo- 
graphically the following 9 quadrangles: Bradford, Brookville, 
Menno, Lewistown, Centre Hall, Needmore, Hawley, Mifflintown, 
and Blossburg, and part of the Eaglesmere, Tidioute, Townsville, 
Youngsville. and Titusville quadrangles — a total of 2262 square 
miles. It has published 5 engrav^ed topographic sheets of about 225 



28 



REPORT OF THE 



Off. 1)00. 



No. 7 



DErARTMKXT OF FORESTS AND WATERS 



29 



square miles each, as follows: Mauch Chunk, Mount Union, Stod- 
dardsville, Tionesta, and Towanda. In addition, photolithographs 
have been issued of the Berlin, Brookville, Centre Hall, Lewistown, 
Menno, and Hawley quadrangles. 

These maps are becoming widely known and extensively used. 
Lack of such maps has made necessary in the past large expendi- 
tures by private corporations and individuals and the unnecessary 
duplication of much work. With the steady growth in the size and 
importance of constructional work of every character, and with good 
roads the demand for these maps increases. The topographic map- 
ping of the State is at present a little more than 70 per cent com- 
pleted. It is hoped some time to supply every school in the State 
with a topographic map of its own area, and a bulletin telling how 
to read and use such a map. 

GEOLOGIC REPORTS AND PUBLICATIONS 

The Survey has issued during the two years 7 printed bulletins 
as follows : 

Mineral Resources of Adams County — G. W. Stose — 64 pp., 11 
plates, 2 in color, 1 figure, and 1 map in colors. 

Soil Survey of Adams County — A. L. Patrick & H. H. Bennett — 

44 pp., 1 map in colors. 
Coal Analyses — 268 pp., 1 plate. 
Limestones of Pennsylvania — B. L. Miller — 350 pp., 11 plates, 

7 ngures, 1 map in colors. 

Bituminous Coal I.osses and Mining Methods — J. D. Sisler — 

225 pp., 1 plate, 29 figures. 
Anthracite Losses and Reserves — D. C. Ashmcad — 71 pp., 13 

plates, 1 lithograph map. 
Lead and Zinc Ores of Pennsylvania — B. L. Miller — 91 pp., 5 

plates, 7 figures. 
The following reports were in press June 1, 1926, but have since 

been issued: 

Allentown Atlas — B. L. Miller — 200 pp., 14 plates, 2 figures, 2 
colored maps. 

Punxsutawney Atlas — G. H. Ashley — 144 pp., 1^ plate, 26 fig- 
ures, 5 colored maps. 

Greensburg Atlas — M. E. Johnson — 162 pp., 10 plates, 25 
figures, 2 colored maps. 

New Holland Atlas — A. I. Jonas & G. W. Stose — 40 pp., 7 
plates, and 2 colored maps. 

Coal Fields of Pennsylvania, Part 11 — J. D. Sisler — 511 pp., 

8 plates, 152 figures, 6 colored maps. 

Slate of Northampton County — C. H. Behre, Jr. — 312 pp., 36 

plates, 49 figures, 2 colored maps. 

These reports represent, in main, projects started and more 
or less completed before June 1, 1924; yet a part of the time of the 



• • 



1 



«• • 



.1 



Survey members went into the final preparation, editing, and proof 
reading of these reports, including some field work on several of 
them, and of several others not yet completed. 

One of the outstanding projects carried on during the two years 
was the preparation of a new base map of Pennsylvania following 
the recommendations of the Pennsylvania Board of Maps and Sur- 
veys, and a new geologic map of the State. The actual preparation 
of the manuscript base map was placed in the hands of skilled carto- 
graphers of the U. S. Geological Survey. The map, on the scale of 
6 miles equals one inch, is now being engraved on stone. When 
completed it w^ill become the property of the State, and be available 
for use by all departments of the State. The new geologic map, to 
go on the new base map when completed, will bring together on a 
small scale all the detailed geology published since the State geo- 
logic map was issued one-third of a century ago, and about as much 
more as yet unpublished detailed geology. Much of this unpnb- 
.lished material will be published on a larger scale within the next 
few years. In this work, cooperation of the members of the U. S. 
Geological Survey has been secured, and the Federal Survey has 
.c:enerously turned over to this Survey all of the unpublished work 
in this State in its possession. 

Another important investigation undertaken and still in pro- 
gress is a study of the small sizes of anthracite, the extent, location, 
and value of past accumulations, the rate at which additions are 
being made to these deposits now, their effect on the flow of streams 
rising in the anthracite req^ion, and the possible recovery and use 
of the small sizes wasted in the past, or being wasted today. In 
this work, the Survey has had the cooperation of the U. S. Bureau 
of Mines and the Water Resources Service of this Department. 
Culm piles and silt banks arc being sampled and analyses of the 
samples are being made by the U. S. Bureau of Mines. 

The detailed geogic survey of the Pittsburgh quadrangle was 
completed and by June 1 the manuscript was nearly ready to submit. 
Additional work was done on the Meyersdale quadrangle, but its 
completion was postponed for the anthracite work. Work was con- 
tinued on the Lancaster and Middletown quadrangles, and supple- 
mentary work was done on the Curwensville, Houtzdale, Punxsuta- 
wney, New Castle. McCalls Ferry, and New Cumberland quadran- 
gles by different members of the Survey. Additional field and office 
work necessary to complete the Adams County report was finished, 
and work was begun on the Greene County report. The Bituminous 
Coal Reserves, computed in a preliminary wdy in 1922, were supple- 
mented by additional computations and revisions. 



]ii 



30 



REPORT OF THE 



Off. Doc. 



The Sun^ey kept in touch with the oil and gas situation, a rep- 
resentative making a number of trips to .study new developments, 
especially in Clinton County. During 1925-26 microscopic and 
mineralogic studies were made of the deep oil and gas sands of 
Pennsylvania and adjoining states in the hope of finding characters 
by which those sands could be readily distinguished. In this work 
the oil and gas operators are heartily cooperating, and have been 
obtaining and turning over for study, cuttings of all of their present 
deep drillings. The porosity of the sands from cores made by some 
of the companies were also studied. It is believed that the results 
of these studies will be of very large value to the oil and gas in- 
dustry. 

In 1924 an intensive study of the slate of the Northampton 
County region was made. A report is now in press. Studies of 
the clays of the State, long needed, were started in 1925. The 
first work undertaken was on the flint clays. Samples of the flint 
clays of western-central Pennsylvania were collected and tested in 
the laboratory. 

During the two years the wSurvey has cooperated with the 
American Foundrymen's Association in a study of Pennsylvania 
molding sands. More than 100 samples of 25 and 50 pounds each 
were collected. They are being tested at Cornell University at 
the expense of the Association. The tests of sands collected in 
1923-24 were published in mimeograph bulletin No. 87. The build- 
ing stones of Pennsylvania have also been studied during the last 
two years. Studies on the iron ore deposits of the State and on the 
deposits of other metallic ores have also been continued. 

As opportunity has offered, the State Geologist has been pre- 
paring Part I of the Bituminous Coal Fields of Pennsylvania; a 
paper on the rocks and geological history of Pennsylvania, to ac- 
company the new geological map of the State; and has written a 
number of short papers for presentation before clubs and societies 
in several cities of the State. Four of these papers were issued 
later as mimeograph bulletins under the titles: Age and Origin 
of the Earth ; Salurian Stratigraphy at Lehigh Gap ; A Practical 
Classification of Coals; and Pennsylvania, the Makings of a World 
Power. The State Geologist gave some attention to a "Practical 
Classification of Coals" proposed by him in 1919, that in modified 
form has since been the subject of professional study and discussion 
by the coal industry. 

In 1925, the Survey in cooperation with the U. S. Geological 
Survey, undertook for the first time a definite study of the under- 
ground waters of Pennsylvania. This work was of a reconnaissance 



» 



No. 7 



DEPARTMENT OF FORESTS AND WATERS 



SI 



nature. In that summer the area south and east of Blue or Kitta- 
tinny Mountain was examined. The work will be continued until 
the whole State has been covered. 

In its general operations, the Survey has served as a clearing 
house for information on geologic, topographic, mining, and other 
related subjects. The Survey continues to receive on an average 
1,000 personal calls a year from those seeking information, and from 
4,000 to 6,000 inquiries a year are answered by letter. The printed 
reports save the Survey from writing many long letters of explana- 
tion, as was formerly necessary. The State Geologist and other 
members of the Survey have responded to many requests to speak 
on the mineral resources of the State and related subjects. 

STATE PARKS, BOARDS AND COMMISSIONS 

The most important relationship between this Department and 
the several boards and commissions affiliated with it pertains to 
fiscal matters. The work of these boards and commissions is now 
under strict budgetary control, and as a consequence it is going for- 
ward in a businesslike way. The boards affiliated with this depart- 
ment are THE VALLEY FORGE PARK COMMISSION, WASH- 
INGTON CROSSING PARK COMMISSION. THE LAKE ERIE 
AND OHIO RIVER CANAL BOARD, THE PENNSYLVANIA 
STATE PARK AND HARBOR COMMISSION OF ERIE, THE 
STATE GEOGRAPHIC BOARD, STATE FOREST COMMIS- 
SION, AND THE WATER AND POWER RESOURCES 
BOARD. 

THE VALLEY FORGE PARK COMMISSION 

The Valley Forge Park Commission was organized at a meet- 
ing held in Philadelphia on November 3, 1923, at which time this 
administrative board, under the provisions of the Administrative 
Code (effective June IS, 1923) had become subject to the fiscal con- 
trol of the Department of Forests and Waters. By reason of econo- 
mies which generally affected all departments of the state govern- 
ment for the biennium, June 1, 1923 to May 31, 1925, the appro- 
priation for the maintenance of the Park was only $35,000 for that 
two year period, an amount so small that the Commission found 
it extremely difficult to protect the interests committed to its care, 
and impossible to engage in any new developments. 

In the following biennium, 1925-26, the Commission was grantea 
$150,000 for maintenance and for the payment of interest on land 
purchases, pending final settlements with former owners of ground 
added to the Park by condemnation proceedings, and $100,000 for 
the improvement and repair of the roads, which had fallen into 



32 



REPORT OP THE 



Off. Doc. 



neglect occasioning the most unfavorable remark. With motor 
traffic rising each year and an increase of popular interest in the 
nation's historical shrines, particularly in this camp ground of the 
Revolution, v^hich has brought to its boundaries an ever larger 
number of visitors, the highway requirements were immediate. That 
this work might be competently executed, it was put in charge of 
the State Highway Department, to which the Commission acknowl- 
edges its indebtedness for the most effective service. The roads 
are at this time in an unexceptionable state of repair. The authori- 
ties of Montgomery County at the same time have improved the 
Port Kennedy road on its course through the Park, with great 
benefit to traffic, thus satisfactorily supplementing the work done 
by the State. 

The appropriation for maintenance enabled the Commission to 
adopt a number of necessary measures. It was noted that there 
was seepage through the masonry at the National Arch, because 
of defective waterproofing of the joints. For the preservation of 
this monument contracts were let and the work of repair, which 
has been in progress for some weeks, has now been completed. 

The present Commission, convinced of the need of emphasizing 
the historical significance of the Park, and of a treatment of the 
area from this standpoint, has instituted some measures which wilU 
in their opinion, forward the end in view. Sites have been marked 
and explained by many new signs. The signs already in place had 
been introduced at a time when the Park had but a small acreage. 
It had come by sucessive acquisitions to comprise 1425 acres. The 
need was at hand, therefore, for a complete study of new require- 
ments in this regard. Brigade positions, headquarters houses, 
roads, the site of Sullivan's bridge, fortifications, etc. were to be 
marked. At the same time a number of signs were erected giving 
directions to visitors as to the boundaries of the Park, county lines, 
and the use of automobiles. Nearly 150 of these markers, finished 
in conformity with those earlier in position, have been erected. 

A study of the Washington Headquarters building made it 
clear that in a number of respects it had been spoiled by ill advised 
restoration. With the advice of Mr. Horace Wells Sellers, and 
the Committee on Historical Monuments of the Philadelphia Chap- 
ter of the American Institute of Architects, of which Mr. Sellers 
is chairman, changes have been made in the kitchen, the areaw^ay 
between the house and the kitchen and the steps leading down from 
the house into this areawav. All these alterations have been in the 
interest of historical accuracy. Advice has been sought concern- 
ing the furnishing of the various rooms in Headquarters and changes 






No. 7 



DEPARTMENT OF FORESTS AND WATERS 



33 



not already made there are in prospect. Outside of the house the 
hoods have been removed from the chimneys, shingles of colonial 
type have been substituted for tile on the roof of the pent over the 
entrance, and trellises for old fashioned roses, which have been 
planted, have been built against the south wall. The most material 
change in the building, which is indispensably necessary, if it is to 
have a colonial aspect, the removal of the modern cement pointing 
with which the walls were at some former time disfigured, has been 
authorized. The work is under contract and is in course of execu- 
tion. 

The small stable building, south of the Headcpiarters, has been 
rid of its entirely modern decorations and has been converted into 
a museum of relics. These include ammunition, bayonets, scabbards, 
and other war material, uncovered at diffierent times by excavation 
in the camp ground, household utensils, tools, coins and s()uvenirs 
of Washington, Wayne and other commanders of the Revolution 
who were at Valley Forge. The walls have been hung with the 
photographs of Washington portraits, chronologically arranged, 
which were presented to the Commission a number of years ago by 
the late Julius F. Sachse, a collection of portraits of Washington 
and his generals and aides presented by the late Franklin D. Stone, 
together with maps of the camp, pictures of the Washington Head- 
quarters building, etc. All the pictures belonging to the Commis- 
sion have been cleaned, and reframed, when this was needed, as 
much for their preservation as for their exhibition to the public. 
This museum is susceptible of extension as material comes to hand. 
At the same time the Camp School House as an exhibition and sales 
room was closed. It is open to view as the restoration of an old 
school room. 

The changes in the Headquarters and the stable have led to 
the development of plans for the treatment of the entire area ad- 
jacent to these buildings. The space has been suitably lighted by 
electricity in front of reflectors set in the ground, which will be 
masked. By this device posts and globes out of the spirit of the 
place are avoided. The fences around the PTeadquarters and the 
gardens are to be restored. The small house with a recent mansard 
roof, south of the stable, used for some years as the office of the 
Commission, and as a residence for the Superintendent, is to be al- 
tered to appearance in keeping with its surroundings. The barn in 
the rear is to be made over for office and other uses. It will con- 
tain a large comfort station for the accommodation of the public. 
The unsightly structure now serving this use is to be removed. The 
great increase in the number of visitors to the Park in motor vehic- 



S4 



liEPORT OF THE 



Off. Doc. 



les has made necessary the creation of parking space near the Head- 
quarters. The continued employment for this purpose of the road 
in front of the building, which is often congested and therefore 
dangerous, is not possible. A suitable place, ample in dimensions, 
and easy of access from the approaching roads, exists near the barn 
and will be converted to this use. It is hoped by planting to effect 
a return of the entire area around the Headquarters to an appearance 
suggestive of that which it wore when Washington lived here. 

With adequate parking facilities at another point in the Park 
in view, a larger area has been prepared and reset aside for automo- 
biles, at the foot of the observatory on the summit of Mount Joy. 
New comfort stations are in course of construction at that place and 
at the picnic grove near Fort Huntington. Aid in this direction has 
come froi;n the new pipe line, laid down across the Park in the 
Spring of 1926 by the Philadelphia Suburban Water Company. Their 
right to place their line in the Gulph Road, a public highway, was 
clear. Rather than submit to the destruction of the new surface of 
this road the Commission gave its consent, under conditions and 
restrictions, to the excavation of a trench by the most direct route 
from a point at the entrance of the Park east of the Phoenixville 
road to a point on the south boundary, beyond the National Arch 
on the way to Bryn Mawr, the objective of the line. In return for 
this privilege we demanded compensation which was abated by 
branch service lines to the house on the Huntington Headquarters 
site and to Mount Joy. These lines, in addition to other uses, will 
be of possible value in the extinguishment of forest fires. Telephones 
have been installed, reaching a number of key positions in the 
Park, so that early information may be given of fires, and for the 
protection of visitors, especially motor tourists, in case of accident 
requiring immediate relief. 

The planting of the Park has been well begun at and around the 
National Arch. The plans for this work called for the use of a 
variety of trees and shrubbery. In a comparatively short time it 
is believed that the nakedness of the knoll on which this monument 
stands will be lost in verdure. In this connection, in pursuit of 
an arrangement of walks and vistas agreeable to the eye, permission 
was asked by you of the Governor of Massachusetts to remove the 
memorial erected here by that State to a more appropriate adjacent 
position. Consent was obtained and the Commission will, there- 
fore, reset this monument in conformity with the general plans of 
its landscape architect. Planting at other points, as around the Wayne 
statue, will proceed as seasonal and other conditions favor it. Per- 
suaded that there is need of a comprehensive policy for the arrange- 



No. 7 



DEPARTMENT OF FORESTS AND WATERS 






ment of all new features within the Park, the readjustments of ex- 
isting features that are incongruous and the preservation of all de- 
sirable possessions with a view to restoring the ground as a natural 
rural area to somewhat the same form and condition in which it 
was when it was occupied as a camp, the Commission has caused 
such comprehensive plans to be drawn up for its own guidance and 
as a suggestion to future commissions in these respects. 

A succinct statement of the historical significance of Valley 
Forge, together with a map of the Park, indicating the roads and 
the principal places of interest, has been isssued and is distributed 
free by the guards. It has met with the appreciation of visitors. 

The acquisition of condemned land, for which juries of view 
earlier made awards, has gone forward slowly. Interest and other 
settlements are proceeding. When the site of the old P>aptist Road 
to the old Fatland Ford on the Schuylkill becomes available to the 
Commission, through settlement with the owner of the property, 
it is proposed that the path of this road, over which the Revolution- 
ary commands which were stationed here constantly passed, shall 
be cleared of undergrowth. This will open to the visitor on foot 
or on horse a way to the ruins of an old picket hut which is one 
of the valued relics of the Revolution. Nothing of more historical 
value in the Park remains undeveloped, and its addition to the num- 
ber of scenes of interest to the public is certain to meet with appre- 
ciation. 



A number of useless buildings without historical significance ac- 
quired upon settlement of land claims need to be razed, while others, 
which are not obstructions and promise to be serviceal)le to the 
Commission in the work of administration, require more or less 
extensive repairs. Two old houses north of Valley Creek in Chester 
County and west of the Phoenixville road have been remodelled and 
restored in the Colonial spirit. 

It is of interest to note the number of persons who visit the Park. 
Even in winter time, when it is seen to the least advantage, it is 
the objective of many people. In December, 1913, there were only 
54 visitors at Washington's Headquarters. In 1924 and 1925 there 
were never less than 2500 visitors during a winter month. 

In the calendar year 1925 our guards counted approximately 225,- 
000 visitors at Headquarters, with a very much larger number in 
the Park. In the summer of 1926 the Headquarters were entered 
on a Sunday by 4500 persons. Five times this number of persons 
came to the Park, since many do not attempt to enter the building, 
because of the crowds surrounding the doors, or prefer simply to 



Mtii 



36 



REPORT OF THE 



Off. Doc. 



drive over the roads to look at the entrenchments and survey the 
external scene. 

The trust funds in the hands of the Commission are three in 
number: 

1. That of the Centennial and Memorial Association of Valley 
Forg-e ($15,000) v^hich is available "to purchase, improve and pre- 
serve the lands, and improvements thereon, occupied by General 
Washington at Valley Forge, and maintain them as a memorial for 
all time to come." 

2. The bequest under the will of Selden Tv^itchell, deceased, 
($10,000) "for the care and maintenance of Valley Forge Camp 
ground." 

3. The bequest under the same will ($2500) "for the care and 
maintenance of Washington's Headquarters." 

The Commission regrets to record the death of two of its mem- 
bers—George Burnham, Jr. in 1923 and Colonel George J. Elliott 
in 1925. 

WASHINGTON CROSSING PARK COMMISSION 

This Commission, authorized by Act approved July 25, 1917, P. 
L. 1209, as amended by Acts of 1921 and 1923, is composed of ten 
(10) citizens of the State appointed by the Governor, for the term 
of fivt years. All vacancies in the Commission shall be filled by 
the Governor. The Commissioners are authorized to appoint as 
Secretary one of their members who shall receive no compensation 
for his service. The members of the Commission are: Hon. Har- 
man Ycrkcs, Hon. W. Clayton Hackett, Hon. Clarence J. Buckman, 
CCA. Baldi, Samuel C. Eastburn, Allen W. Hagenbach, Carrol 
R. Williams, H. Edgar Lewis, Louis H. Hitchler and Col. Henry 
D. Paxson. Hon. Harman Yerkes is president, Hon. W. Clayton 
Hackett, Secretary, and Ernest H. Harvey, Assistant Secretary and 
Superintendent. 

The Commission is authorized to acquire, by purchase or condem- 
nation, and perpetuate and preserve the site, not to exceed five hun- 
dred acres, on which the Continental Army, under the command 
of General George Washington, was assembled and from which 
they crossed the river Delaware on the night preceding the Rattle 
of Trenton, December twenty-five one thousand seven hundred and 
seventy-six. The location and boundries of the Park shall be fixed 
by the Commissioners, and the Park shall be laid out, preserved and 
maintained forever as a public place or park, by the name of Wash- 
ington Crossing Park, and shall be preserved in its original coridi- 



No. 7 



DEPARTMENT OF FORESTS AND WATERS 



37 



tion as nearly as possible for the enjoyment of the people of the 
State. 

After the title has passed to the Commonwealth, the Governor, 
acting as Commander-in-Chief, may direct said Commissioners to 
open the grounds and park for the accommodation of the National 
Guard or any portion thereof. The Commission is authorized to 
make all necessary arrangements for such military camps, to pro- 
vide for sufficient water supply and drainage, and during such camps 
to relinquish to the commanding officer, for the time being, all police 
control over and through the park and grounds. 

The Commission owns 81.514 acres at Washington Crossing com- 
prising the ^'Valley of Concentration'' where the Continental Army 
was formed and drilled previous to crossing the River Delaware; 
the "Place of Embarkation" of the Army when it crossed the Del- 
aware the night previous to the Battle of Trenton; the Old Ferry 
House and Hotel built in 1757 and remodelled by the Commission 
to be used as an Inn ; and the Island in the Delaware River behind 
which the Durham Boats were secreted previous to crossing the 
River carrying General Washington and the Continental Soldiers. 

The Continental Army's main camping ground at Neely's Mills 
and at Bowman's Hill have been purchased or condemned by the 
Commission and contains about 241 acres. This includes the land 
upon which there are many Continental Soldiers' graves, the Old 
Thompson House where the important councils of war were held, 
Neely's Mill where the grain was ground for the Continental Army, 
and Bowman's Hill, Washington's observation point from Trenton 
north. 

Improvements to the land and buildings have been made as fast 
as appropriations would permit and those improvements that have 
been made are of a permanent nature and such as are a credit to 
the Commonwealth. 

A stone wall has been built along part of the river front to pre- 
vent the terrace from washing; considerable more of the ground 
has been graded and seeded and several hundred additional feet of 
walks laid ; 3400 pieces of trees and shrubbery have been added to 
the grounds and the standing trees and shrubbery properly cared 
for. A pontoon bridge to the island has been constructed and the 
island cleared of underbrush and the trees trimmed, thus making 
additional space for the visitors to use. Four rustic summer houses 
have been built over the various pumps supplying the Park with 
drinking water. Two out-door toilets have been erected and a 
machine house, thirty by one hundred feet, built to house the tools, 



38 



REPORT OF THE 



Oflf. Doc. 



machinery, benches, tables, and other properties of the Park. On 
account of the heavy travel a suspension light to regulate the traffic 
has been placed at the intersection of the Delaware River Road 
and the Memorial Boulevard. Running water has been placed in 
all the rooms at the Inn and the porch enclosed and heated. 

The Joint Bridge Commission has let a contract to build a side- 
walk on the bridge from Washington Crossing, Pa., to Washington 
Crossing, N. J., which will be completed this season. This will 
serve the convenience and safety of the persons using the bridge. 

The State Highway along the river bank, which leads from 
Morrisville to the Easton Highway at Kintnersville and passes 
through the Park, has been further improved by the State Highway 
Department. The Park is thus easily accessible from all points ex- 
cept directly from Philadelphia; Philadelphians have a State High- 
way to within three and one-half miles of the Park, the balance is 
dirt road and not in good condition. 

During the past two summers thousands of people, from nearly 
all states in the Union, have visited and enjoyed this historic spot. 

THE LAKE ERIE AND OHIO RIVER CANAL BOARD 

During the past two years, since June 1, 1924, the Canal Board 
has continued its activities toward bringing about successful ac- 
complishment of this much needed improvement. In addition to 
this, considerable work has been required in co-operating with the 
engineers of the Federal Government in protection against encroach- 
ment on and interference with the proposed waterway line and its 
water supply plans. 

Mr. Burd S. Patterson, executive clerk who had for many years 
been prominently and effectively active in promotion of the canal 
project died June 19, 1924. Mr. Patterson was a man of high ideals 
and his loss was felt accordingly. Mr. George M. Lehman, who 
upon several occasions held the position of Chief Engineer, of the 
canal, being familiar with the project, took the position upon re- 
quest, left vacant by Mr. Patterson. 

The work of the Board suffered materially on account of the lack 
of funds, the appropriation made to the Board being temporarily 
held up. It was not possible to properly keep up expenses and make 
payments of existing debts until after May, 1925. A considerable 
amount was due the estate of Mr. Patterson, he, not having received 
his salary for about a year. 



No. 7 



DEPARTMENT OF FORESTS AND WATERS 



39 



* ■ • 



The Board had been long awaiting the report of Col. C. W. Kutz, 
U. S. Engineer Corp, who had charge of the examination of the 
canal routes through Ohio and of our route in Pennsylvania and 
northeastern Ohio. It was finally announced that the report had 
been received by the Chief of Engineers, in Washington, under 
date of March 19, 1925. Immediately the Board took action toward 
having the report reviewed and after correspondence with Wash- 
ington, permission was given; the report, together with various 
papers and maps, pertaining thereto, being available in Cincinnati, 
Ohio. • 

The Board realized the desirability of having, nearly as possible, 
an unbiased review of the report, by an outside Engineer, and 
finally engaged the services of Mr. Robert Isham Randolph of Chi- 
cago, 111. In examination of the report Mr. Lehman was instructed to 
collaborate with Mr. Randolph and they met in Cincinnati, Ohio. 

While Col. C. W. Kutz selected our route as of greatest import- 
ance, calling it No. 1, he stated that it was "economically inadvis- 
able'' and seemed to feel that if built the railroads might then re- 
duce their rates to those of the canal. He granted that from an 

engineering point of view it is entirely feasible. 

« 

Mr. Randolph set up an argument against the adversed contention 
of Col. C. W. Kutz, based upon fresh analyzation of the business 
side of the question and supported by many of the prominent in- 
dependent steel concerns, which was presented at a hearing by the 
Army Engineers, held in Youngstown, Ohio, Nov. 7, 1925. The 
Board stands upon this and after careful consideration feels that Col. 
C. W. Kutz is wrong — that this canal link connecting the Great 
Lakes with the head of the Ohio River, is absolutely required to 
cope with present conditions and future needs, not only of this 
region but of a considerable portion of the United States. The 
favorable interest of the independent steel concerns came out strong- 
ly as never before at the above hearing. 

The United States War Department in a notice issued September 
3, 1925, stated that it was considering the advisability of abandon- 
ing the project for improvement of the Youghiogheny River. Inas- 
much as this now is a direct arm of the largest tonnage producing 
stream in this country, the Monongahela River, the Board took 
strong exception to this suggested abandonment and addressed a 
communication on the subject to the local Army Officer, to the effect 
that the river should be improved for a distance of twenty miles, 
above the mouth as had been intended, and to do otherwise would 
throttle facilities for harbor expansion during the years to come. 



40 



REPORT OF THE 



Off. Doc. 



According to the best information available at this moment, no ac- 
tion has been taken by Congress, and the project is where it was 
before, recommended but no funds. 

Mr. Lehman having received an engagement in California relin- 
quished his position as executive clerk on December 1, 1925, and 
Mr. E. L. Schmidt, C. E., who upon several occasions had been con- 
nected with the canal surveys and estimates was elected to take 
his place. Familiarity with the canal work has of course enabled 
Mr. Schmidt to be of effective service to the Board. 

Mr. W. H. Stevenson, Chairman, met Mr. Robert Isham Randolph 
in Washington in May of the present year to examine the rebuttal 
of Col. C. W. Kutz on Mr. Randalph's report of November 7, 1925. 

General Jadwin, Chief of Army Engineers, at the earnest solicita- 
tion of Mr. Stevenson and Mr. Randolph agreed to permit the Canal 
Board to reply to the rebuttal of Col. C. W. Kutz and to give the 
Board a hearing before the Army Engineers in September or October 
of the present year, before completing their report on the Canal Pro- 
ject, which is to be presented to Congress at its next session. 

The Jones & Laughlin Steel Company of Pittsburgh and the Bitu- 
minous Coal Operators of Western Pennsylvania, have, at the present 
time, a protest before the Interstate Commerce Commission, against 
the discriminatory rail rates for raw and finished material in and 
out of the Pittsburgh District, in which they state that if these 
rates are not made nondiscriminatory, the business which has long 
belonged to Western Pennsylvania will undoubtedly move to the 
Gary, Ind., and St. Louis, Mo., Districts. 

The Board therefore feels that this great question is vital to the 
State of Pennsylvania and that the transportation of raw and 
finished material at low cost can only be secured for Western Penn- 
sylvania, by the construction o^ this canal. 

PENNSYLVANIA STATE PARK AND HARBOR COMMISSION OF 

ERIE 

(From Organization of Commission, December 28, 1921, to June 1, 1925.) 

The first meeting of the Commission was held on December 28, 
1921, at which officers were elected. The matters of most import- 
ance accomplished during the first years of the Commission's ac- 
tivities are as follows: 

Obtaining title from the Federal Government for Presque Isle 
Peninsula. 



No. 7 



DEPARTMENT OF FORESTS AND WATERS 



41 



Obtaining right of way through private property for the approach 
road. 

Successfully carrying out a campaign by which $75,000 was 
raised by the citizens of Erie to match the $50,000 appropriated by 
the State. 

A general survey and plan of the Peninsula, including an aero- 
plane survey, was undertaken by Mr. Haldeman, from the Internal 
Department. 

The right of way was cleared of timber and 1,000 feet each of 
two types of experimental road were laid on the beach sand. 

Two small docks, and recreation centers were built on the east- 
ern end of the property to accommodate the public until such time 
as access could be had by proposed road. 

A sand dredge was built and considerable filling done in anticipa- 
tion of road building. 

» 

Obstructions in the way of a roller coaster and foot-bridge on 
the approach road were ironed out and satisfactorily settled. 

In February, 1924, agreement was reached with the Erie County 
Commissioners, Water Commissioners of the City of Erie and the 
State Highway Department, under which the Highway Department 
was to build the half mile of approach road and the County Com- 
missioners to expend an equal amount in the construction of road 
on the Peninsula, all roads built in the future to be of standard 
concrete type and built under the supervision and inspection of the 
Highway Department. 

Contract was let to the Chas. H. Fry Construction Company of 
Erie by all parties concerned, and provided for the building of the 
road through the Water Works property, a distance of approxi- 
mately four miles. 

(From June 1, 1925 to June 1, 1926.) 

The road, for a distance of approximately four miles, was formal- 
ly opened in August, 1925. Parking spaces provided were found 
to be inadequate and steps w^ere at once taken to widen the slag 
l;erms to 8 feet in order to accommodate pnralled ])arking. The 
road immediately became very popular, and the traffic includes a 
large number of cars from other states. During the summer months 
the beach is crowded with bathers and picnickers. Some sixty 
tables and a number of stoves and trash baskets have been installed 
for the benefit of picnic parties. 



42 



REPORT OF THE 



Off. Doc. 



A serious fire on the eastern end of the Peninsula brought to the 
attention of the Commission the necessity of building fire stops 
and providing means for combating forest fires. About two miles 
of fire stops and approximately seven miles of bridle path and 
trails were opened up and an area cleared of underbrush and fallen 
timber to help eliminate fire hazards. Two Evinrude pumps and 
2,000 feet of hose were purchased as fire-fighting apparatus. 

The Commission decided to expend all available money in the 
extension of the road through the Flashlight property, an addition- 
al distance of one and one-half miles, and to cut down all overhead 
expense in the way of superintendent and office force. This de- 
cision, it is belived has served the public demand although very 
few accommodations or recreational features could be provided 
due to lack of funds. 

The filling of swamps and low lying ponds has progressed steadily, 
with the aid of the sand dredge, at an estimated cost of from six 
to ten cents per cublic yard. This will eventually help in the 
elimination of the mosquito nuisance. These filled-in ponds have 
been covered with a light coat of soil and clay and have been 
turned into ball grounds and tennis courts. 

The Perry Memorial Commission applied for a site upon 
which to erect a monument to the memory- of Oliver Hazard 
Perry. This monument has been erected on Crystal Point and 
overlooks Misery Bay, in which the fleet was sunk after the 
battle. Unfortunately, the only means to access to this property 
at present is by boat. 

A great demand being felt and numerous applications for con- 
cessions in the way of refreshment stands being received, and 
there being no funds available, four members of the Commission 
volunteered to erect and operate a refreshment stand, with the 
proviso that it may be purchased by the Commission at any time, 
and that all profits accruing shall revert to the Commission. 

The rather stringent traffic rules adopted have produced gratify- 
ing results in the elimination of practically all accidents, notwith- 
standing the heavy traffic that this road has carried. 

The prohibition of hunting on the Peninsula has resulted in 
the stopping over during spring and fall migration of large num- 
bers of ducks and geese and a flock of a hundred white swans. It 
is hoped to eventually make this a sanctuary for all wild life. 

The Commissioners of Water Works of the City of Erie have 
shown great co-operation and h^\x developed their section of the 



No. 7 



DEPARTMENT OF FORESTS AND WATERS 



43 



Park at a considerable outlay of money, which includes the build- 
ing of bath houses, road, paths, docks and parking spaces. 

The U. S. Department of Commerce has agreed to contribute 
$5,000 toward the building of the road through the property oc- 
cupied by the Bureau of Lighthouses, known as the Flashlight 
Reservation. ^ 

THE PENNSYLVANIA STATE GEOGRAPHIC BOARD 

The Pennsylvania State Geographic Board was provided for by 
Sections 426 and 1609 of the Administrative Code. 

The Board consists of the Secretary of Forests and Waters, the 
Secretary of Highways, the President of the Pennsylvania His- 
torical Commission, and the Chief of the Land Office Bureau in 
the Department of Internal Affairs. 

It is the duty of the Board to pass upon and determine all un- 
settled questions concerning geographic names which arise in the 
administrative departments of the State Government; and to de- 
termine, change, and fix the names of mountains rivers, creeks, 
and other topographic features within the Commonwealth. 

During 1923 to 1926 the following matters have come before the 
Board, and have been decided as follows: 

GULICH Township, Clearfield County. (Not Geulich) Named 
for Gerhard Philip Gulich, a pioneer. 

GALLAHER Township, Clinton County. (Not Gallagher nor 
Gallauher) Based on Court records made when the township was 
confirmed. 

QUEENS RUN (Not Queen's Run nor Quinn's Run) On the 
north bank of the West Branch of the Susquehanna River, three 
miles northwest of Lock Haven, Clinton County. Based on old 
surveys and patents dating back to 1787. 

CENTRE County (Not Center) Based on the spelling in the 
Act creating the County. 

BRODHEAD Mountain, south of Cherry Springs Fire Tower 
in Susquehannock State Forest. Named for General Daniel Brod- 
head, famous in Colonial days. 

ELK LICK Township, Somerset County (Not Elklick) Con- 
firming action of the U. S. Georgraphic Board. 

UWCHLAN Township, Chester County. (Not L^wchland nor 
Lower ITwchlan) confirming action by tliC U. S. Geographic Board. 

GREEN Township, Clinton County (Not Greene) Named for 
Captain Harry Green, who spelled his name without the "^'\ 



44 



EEPOBT OF THE 



Off. Doc. 



CATHARINE'S CROWN, Peak in Nittany Mountain, between 
the Milton and Williamsport quadrangles. Named in memory of 
Catharine Smith, who built a grist mill and a gun bormg mil 
at the mouth of White Deer Creek, and was promment m colonial 

CENTRE HALL, Centre County (Not Center Hall) In accord- 
ance with common usage and the spelling of the County named. 

TRCZIYULNY Mountain, Centre County. One mile north 
east of Bellefonte. Named in honor of Casper Karl Stegner 
Trcziyulny, a prominent surveyor of early days. 

ANTES CREEK (Not Nippenose Creek) Named in accordance 
with local usage and the desire of the residents of the region. 
Named after Henry Antes, a prominent frontiersman. 

RAUCH CREEK applied to the upper part of the old Nippenose 
Creek or that part which flows through Ranch's Gap and sinks 
under the valley south of west of Oriole, in accordance with local 
usage. 

THE PENNSYLVANIA STATE FOREST COMMISSION 
At the beginning of the present biennium, the Commission con- 
sisted of Major Robert Y. Stuart, Secretary of Forests and Waters 
as Chairman, Colonel Henry W. Shoemaker, of McElhattan, Hon. 
Edward Bailey, of Harrisburg, Mrs. John W. Lawrence, of Pitts- 
burgh and Dr. Henry S. Drinker, of Merion. Early m January. 
1925 a vacancy occurred due to the resignation of Dr. Drinker 
who was succeeded in January 1926 by Hon. N. P. Wheeler, of 
Endeavor. 

As had been customary in the past, meetings of the Commission 
were held monthly until October 1924 when it was decided that 
thereafter bi-monthly meetings of the Commission would be suffi- 
cient* This was due to the fact that under the Admmistrative 
Code a number of the duties of the Commission were placed under 
sole jurisdiction of the Department of Forests and Waters and in 
the absence of an appropriation for the purchase of land it was the 
opinion of the Commission that one meeting every two months 
would be sufficient, except in case of emergency when the chair- 
man is authorized to convene a special meeting. It has been the 
practice of the Commission in the past to visit points of interest 
upon the State Forests and inspect the work being done thereon. 
During the present biennium interesting meetings were held in 
the Rothrock District and at the State Forest School at Mont 
Alto. 

During the biennial period the following three proposals for the 
' exchange of land were presented to the Commission : 



No. 7 



DEPARTMENT OF FORESTS AND WATERS 



45 



1. At the meeting on August 15, 1924 the Commission decided 
favorably upon the proposal of the Blooming Grove Hunting and 
Fishing Club to exchange 1,518 acres and 30 perches for 598 acres 
and 26 perches of State Forest Land. The estimated value of the 
privately owned land exceeded that of State land by approximate- 
ly $2,750. and the Commission was satisfied that an advantage 
would accrue to the State by reason of this exchange. Certain 
reservations were made by both parties relative to existing road 
and telephone rights of way. 

2. H. D. Hough applied to the Commission for an exchange 
of land in Miles Township Centre County but on February 6, 1925 
this proposal was rejected by the Commission since it could see 
no definite advantage to the Commonwealth. 

3. On April 18, 1925 the Commission decided to accept the 
offer of the Otzinachson Rod and Gun Club for the exchange of 
20 acres of State land for 156 acres owned by the Club. The 
growth and location of both tracts were similar in character so 
that the Commonwealth gains greatly in acreage and both parties 
have a more satisfactory boundry line. 

On September 14, 1925 the Commission authorized the purchase 
of the Clyde S. Miller farm in Chillisquaque Township, North- 
umberland County of 101 acres, 119.2 perches at $150 per acre 
for use in the establishment of a Forest Tree Nursery in accord- 
ance with the provisions of the Act of May 13, 1925, P. L. 643. 

On January 15, 1926 the offer of the Commissioners of Clinton 
County for the sale of 512 acres in Leidy Township was accepted 
conditionally. 

The Commission was informed that due to the generosity of 
a friend of forestry whose identity is withheld by request, the sum 
of $567.42 has been made available under the Act of March 26, 
1925, P. L. 84 for the purchase of five designated tracts of land. 
This will be furthered by a contribution of the Alpine Club of 
Pennsylvania. 

In accordance with the act of May 3, 1909, P. L. 413, the follow- 
ing tracts of land were offered to the Commission by the Secretary 
of Internal Affairs and action taken upon them as indicated: 

August 15, 1924, 20 acres in Erie County rejected; 101 
acres, 151 perches in Pike County accepted. 

September 19, 1924, 1 acre in Westmoreland County re- 
jected. 

April 18, 1925, 2.9 acres in Cambria County rejected. 
March 3, 1926, 26.4 acres in Fayette County rejected; 54.6 
acres in Fayette County rejected. 



4G 



llEPORT OF THE 



Oft. r>oc. 



In each case of rejection, such action was taken for the reason 
that the tract in question was deemed undesirable for forest cul- 
ture or for State Forest Reservation purposes. 

At the meeting on January 19, 1924, the Commission approved 
the cancellation of the mineral lease granted to E. F. Millard up- 
on the payment of all the Commonwealth's claims amounting to 
$1,050.53. 

On April 18, 1925 the Commission approved the granting of a 
right of way to the Potter Gas Company for a pipe line for a ten 
year period subject to renewal privileges, the right of way to be 
27,819 feet in length and 8 feet wide. In accordance with the pro- 
visions of the lease, the Company was to pay the damages as esti- 
mated by the Department of Forests and Waters, $25.00 as an 
annual rental, while gas is to be furnished to State houses within 
a reasonable distance of the gas line at current rates. 

On October 14, 1924 the Commission examined a tract of eight 
acres in Clay Township, Huntingdon County upon which is located 
the largest known swamp white oak in Pennsylvania. A group of 
local citizens had offered to purchase this tract and donate it to 
the Commonwealth with the provision that it be maintained by the 
Department of Forests and Waters as a State Forest Park or Public 
Camp Area. The Commission, however, felt compelled to decline 
this generous offer since it believed that projects of this size and 
relative location to State Forest land can best be developed by local 
communities as a matter of local pride and responsibility. 

On December 19, 1924, the Commission decided that the William 
H. Ludwig medal offered by W. D. I.udwig, P. S. F S. 1910, be 
awarded to that member of the graduating class of the State Forest 
School who shall (a) obtain a position in the upper third of his 
class ancl receive a scholastic average of 85 or over for the entire 
course and (b) be adjudged by vote of the faculty to be the most 
proficient in applied forestry. 

On September 14, 1925, the Commission revised the policy for 
the distribution of free trees in order to meet certain reasonable ob- 
jections advanced bv commercial nurservmen relative to the dis- 
tribution by the Department of Christmas trees and seedlings for 
ornamental use. 

On February 6, 1925 a resolution was adopted by the Commission 
fixing a policy that the Department of Forests and Waters in 
granting leases for various privileges upon the State Forests should 
do business only with Pennsylvania concerns. 



No. 7 



DEPARTMENT OF FORESTS AND WATERS 



47 



THE WATER AND POWER RESOURCES BOARD 

The "Administrative Code" re-organized the Water Supply Com- 
mission under the name of the Water and Power Resources Board 
and made it a departmental administrative body in the Department 
of Forests and Waters. The powers and duties of the Water Sup- 
ply Commission were divided by Sections 1604 and 1608 of the Code 
between the Department of Forests and Waters (Water Resources 
Service) and the Water and Power Resources Board. 

The Water and Power Resources Board consists of five members, 
four of whom are the Secretary of Forests and Waters (Chairman), 
the Secretary of Health, the Commissioner of Fisheries, and the 
Chairman of the Public Service Commission ; the fifth member is 
an engineer appointed by the Governor. The duties of the Board 
consist generally in acting upon applications for the incorporatioii 
of water and water power companies, merger agreements, or sale 
of property and franchises of such companies, applications for new 
or additional sources of supply of water or water power, applica- 
tions for extension of time fixed by law for the beginning or com- 
pletion of the construction of the works of water or water power 
companies and inquiry into the standing of water or water power 
charters, applications for dams, fills, walls, or other water obstruc- 
tions or to change the course, current or cross section of any stream 
or body of water, applications for the condemnation or appropriation 
of waters and for limited water supply or limited water power 
permits. The Board also, upon request of the Secretary of Forests 
and Waters, holds hearings and decides any other matter8;.or things, 
relating to waters, within the jurisdiction of the Department, Reg- 
ular meetings of the Board are held on the second and fourth 
Wednesdavs of each month. 

Water Power 

The Act of June 14, 1923 provides for the issuance by the Water 
and Power Resources Board of limited permits for dams and changes 
in streams to develop water power and for storing, cooling, divert- 
ing and using water for steam raising and steam condensation in 
the generation of electric energ>^ for use in public service. Power 
projects developed under this Act have been classified by the Board 
as major or minor, depending upon whether the power capacity is 
more or less than one hundred horse-power. 

Comparatively few applications for limited power permits have 
been received during the three years since this Act has been in 
cflFect. The major projects for which permits were issued are the 
Wallenpaupack development of the Pennsylvania Power and Light 



48 



REPORT OF THE 



Off. Doc. 



Company on Wallenpaupack Creek in Pike and Wayne Counties 
and that of the Philadelphia Electric Company at Conowingo, 
Maryland, where a dam will be built in the Susquehanna River 
which will back water into Pennsylvania. Two appHcations have 
been received from the Clarion River Power Company in connection 
with its project for power development in the Clarion River, in- 
volving dams at Foxburg and Mill Creek which will create heads 
of 156 feet and 240 feet, respectively. Action on these applications 
has been withheld pending the completion of studies as to the 
safety of the dams, a determination of the amount of power to be 
developed and the effect that the operation of the reservoirs will 
have upon floods in the Allegheny River, particularly in the vicinity 
of Pittsburgh. 

Twenty permits have been issued for minor power projects, one 
for a dam to develop steam power and one for a water supply dam 
which was secured so as to enable the water company to condemn 
the land necessary for reservoir purposes. The revenue received 
for the purpose of reimbursing the Commonwealth for the costs of 
administration of the Act has amounted in the three years to Nine 
Hundred Fourteen Dollars and Ninety Cents. 

The Wallenpaupack Project 

The Wallenpaupack Hydro-Electric Project of the Pennsylvania 
Power and Light Company, described in the last biennial report 
and built under a permit issued January 16, 1924, is practically 
completed and is in operation. The Board had an engineer on this 
project from August 1, 1924 until December 15, 1925, supervising 
the construction of the dam and relocated highways. Lake Wall- 
enpaupack, the storage reservoir of the project, is the largest body 
of water in the State. When full it covers an area of 5,760 acres 
and holds 70,500,000,000 gallons of water. 

When considering this project, the Board realized that the public 
had certain interests other than the electric power to be supplied by 
the company, and, when the permit was issued, a condition was 
attached, to which the company agreed, to the effect that holders 
of fishing licenses, issued under and by authority of the Board of 
Fish Commi^ioners of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, shall 
be allowed to fish in the waters impounded by reason of the con- 
struction of the dam, at all times during the open season in accord- 
ance with such rules and regulations as may be promulgated from 
time to time by the company, subject to the approval of the Board 
of Fish Commissioners. Negotiations are now in progress with a 
view of securing to the public access to the lake at numerous 



No. 7 



DEPARTMENT OF FORESTS AND WATERS 



49 



points and the use, for recreational purposes, of a marginal strip 
around it. 

An Act of Legislature approved June 14, 1923, a companion act to 
that providing for limited power and limited water supply permits, 
gives to public service companies holding such permits the right to 
condemn and appropriate such water, lands and other property and 
rights, and to flood, relocate and reconstruct such highways, bridges 
and railroads as the Board shall find necessary for the project. 
Under this act, the Pennsylvania Power and Light Company has 
filed three petitions; one for the approval of the condemnation, re- 
location and reconstruction of highways and bridges flooded by the 
new lake; one for the condemnation of right-of way for the trans- 
mission line, and the third for the condemnation of certain tracts 
of land along the margin of the lake, which the company has been 
unable to acquire by purchase. The first two petitions were ap- 
proved and the third is pending. 

The Act requires that the highways and bridges condemned shall 
be relocated and rebuilt as the Board shall require, and, in issuing 
orders for the reconstruction of such highways and bridges, the 
Board has endeavored to consider the interests of all parties con- 
cerned in such a manner that no undue burdens will be placed 
upon any by reason of the new construction. The new highways 
and^bridges are considered to be equivalent to the old ones, when 
the increased costs of maintenance and of possible future widening 
on the present locations are considered. More than nine miles of 
new State Highway Route were built and over seven miles 
of township road. Two new bridges were constructed and one old 
bridge relocated over Wallenpaupack Creek, and a number of new 
bridges built over the smaller tributaries flowing into the lake. 

Incoiporation of Water Companies 

Thirty-one applications for the incorporation of water supply 
companies, five mergers, three purchases of the franchises and all 
the property of water companies by other water companies, and one 
application for an additional source of supply were approved during 
the two-year period. • 

Construction and Repair of Dams 

One hundred applications were received for the construction of 
new dams and forty-one applications for repairs or alterations to 
existing dams. One hundred and eighteen permits were issued ; 
seventy-four for new dams and thirty-four for repairs or alterations 
to dams under the Act of June 25, 1913, and nine limited power 
permits and one limited water supply permit under the Act of Tune 



50 



REPORT OF THE 



Off. Doc. 



14, 1923. The most important dams for which permits were issued 
were the Still Creek Dam of the Panther Valley Water Company 
and the Pickering Creek Dam of the Philadelphia Suburban Water 
Company. Of the permits issued for alterations, that issued to the 
Roaring Creek Water Company for raising its No. 6 Dam was the 
most important. Descriptions of these dams follow: 

Still Creek Dam, Panther Valley Water Company 

This dam will be built on Still Creek, about four miles north of 
Jamaqua, in Rush Township, Schuylkill County, and will form a 
reservoir a little more than two miles long and a third of a mile in 
maximum width, with a capacity of about 2,500,000,000 gallons. 
It will be used to store water for domestic and industrial supply 
for towns and incfustries in the Panther Creek Valley, in Schuylkill 
and Carbon Counties, including the towns of Coaldale, and Lans- 
ford. The dam will be an earth embankment, straight in plan, with 
a spillway channel around one end ; it will be 87 feet in maximum 
height and 1300 feet long on the crest. The top width, at an eleva- 
tion 10 feet above the normal waterline, will be 20 feet. The up- 
stream slope Will be 1 vertical on 2-1/2 horizontal for 40 feet in 
elevation below the top, below which it will be 1 vertical on 3 
horizontal, protected with 18 inches of riprap. The downstream 
slope will be I vertical on 2-1/2 horizontal broken by a 6-foot berm 
of 40 fe€t below the top; this slope will be protected by grass. 

Still Creek is one of the few undeveloped streams in the southern 
anthracite region, and, in issuing the permit for this dam, the Board 
attached the following condition: 

"The Water and Power Resources Board, after due notice 
and public hearing in connection with the application for this 
permit, finds that Still Creek is the logical source of water 
supply for the communities in the Valley of Panther Creek 
together with the Borough of Summit Hill, and in the Valley 
of the Little Schuylkill River from its confluence with Still 
Creek to a point one and one-half miles below its confluence 
with Panther Creek. ' 

"The permittee specifically agrees in accepting this permit, 
to supply, upon application and at the published rates, such of 
the said communities as it may lawfully supply, with water 
from Still Creek for domestic and municipal purposes, sufficient 
in amount at all times for the needs of said communities, as 
may be required by order of the Water and Power Resources 
Board, after due notice and public hearing, in so far as such 



No. 7 



DEPARTMENT OF FORESTS AND WATERS 



51 



supply may be available by reason of the development proposed 
under this permit." 



Pickering Creek Dam, Philadelphia Suburban Water Company 

Pickering Creek is one of the three sources of supply used by 
the Philadelphia Suburban Water Company, which furnishes water 
in the greater part of the territory immediately surrounding the 
City of Philadelphia. The demand for water in this territory is 
constantly increasing and it has been found necessary to augment 
the supply from Pickering Creek. The company has at the present 
time a low dam impounding about 15,000,000 gallons of water. The 
proposed dam will create a reservoir about two miles long and a 
thousand feet in maximum width with a capacity of 380,000,000 
gallons. 

The dam will be 40 feet in maximum height and about 1,000 
feet in length. About 600 feet of the central portion will be of 
hollow reinforced concrete construction, while the ends will V^e 
gravity masonry sections. The hollow section will consist of a re- 
inforced concrete deck with a slope of about one vertical on one 
horizontal, supported by buttresses 15 feet center to center. The 
downstream ends of the buttresses will be vertical except in the 
spillway section where they will have a batter of 2 feet vertical 
on 1 horizontal, supporting a reinforced concrete slab to carry the 
flood discharge from the reservoir to the stream below. This dam 
is now being built. 

No. 6 Dam, Roaring Creek Wafer Company 

The Roaring Creek Water Company, supplying water in Shamo- 
kin and vicinity, having need of additional water to supply this 
territory, has made alterations to its No. 6 Dam on Roaring Creek, 
about seven miles north of Shamokin. 

The dam, 40 feet in maximum height, was an earth embankment 
with a core-wall creating a reservoir holding about 600,000,000 gal- 
lons. The dam, as rebuilt, is 59 feet in maximum height, 1,800 
feet long, and the capacity of the reservoir has been increased to 
1,330,000,000 gallons. The top of the dam is now 26.5 feet wide 
at an elevation 5 feet above the flow line. The downstream slope 
is 1 vertical on 2 horizontal. The upstream side of the embank- 
ment is level for 3.5 feet at an elevation 3 feet above the flow line, 
below which the slope is 1 vertical on 2 horizontal for 20 feet in 
elevation followed by a slope of 1 vertical on 2-i/^ horizontal to 
the upstream toe; the upstream slope is protected by riprap and 



52 



REPORT OF THE 



Off. Doc. 



the downstream slope by grass. The core-wall, at the upstream 
edge of the crest, has been raised approximately 20 feet and projects 
3 feet above the top of the embankment forming a parapet. The 
spillway is in excavation around the right end and is a masonry- 
lined channel in which a low weir determines the water level in 
the reservoir. The spillway opening is 80 feet long and 8 feet deep 
and will discharge a flood flow equivalent to a rainfall of one inch 
per hour, with 3 feet of free-board between the maximum height 
of the water and the top of the dam. Construction work on this 
project is completed. 

It has been the consistent policy of the Water Supply Commission 
of Pennsylvania, and its successor the present Water and Power 
Reources Board, to maintain representatives constantly on the 
ground during the construction of all dams of the hollow reinforced 
concrete type, and, in accordance with this policy, a representative 
has been placed on the Pickering Creek project described above, 
and another will be placed on the dam to be built by the Borough 
of Mount Union across Singers Gap Run, in Huntingdon County. 

Encroachments other than Dams 

Six Hundred Eighty-one applications for encroachments other 
than dams were received during this two-year period. Four Hun- 
dred Thirty permits were issued for the construction of bridges, 
nine for fills, and one hundred seventy-nine for miscellaneous en- 
croachments, a total of six hundred eighteen permits. 

The co-operative arrangement between the Board and the Fed- 
eral Government with respect to control and regulation of encroach- 
ments in navigable rivers has been continued in accordance with 
an agreement with the War Department. 



\ 



Channel Lines 

Property owners along the Schuylkill River in Manayunk, Phila- 
delphia, have for years been urging that lines be established along 
the stream, defining the channel and fixing for all time its align- 
ment and width. The river throughout this section of the City 
IS lined with mills and factories and confined between railroads 
and the Schuylkill Canal, so that there has been little room for 
expansion except toward the river. In the absence of laws in past 
years prohibiting restriction of stream channels without State con- 
sent, mills and railroads had secured additional area for expansion 
by making fills and walls in the channel, with the result that it 
has become narrowed in many places so that there is not enough 
area to pass flood waters. The damage from floods has therefore 



No. 7 



DEPARTMENT OF FORESTS AND WATERS 



68 



been increasing from year to year, while individual mills seek to 
encroach even further into the river. 

During the past year the Board made a survey of the river be- 
tween the Flat Rock Dam and the mouth of Wissahickon Creek, 
a distance of three miles, and adopted lines defining the channel 
beyond which no encroachments will be permitted. These lines 
cut into the bank at the narrow sections where the channel has 
been most restricted by fills and it is expected that before many 
years the channel may be opened up at these places and the flood 
carrying capacity correspondingly increased. Where the channel is 
wider than necessary, encroachments will be permitted, so that 
property owners now knovv^ exactly to what line they may build 
without increasing the flood hazard to the community. The lines 
are defined by courses and distances and will be marked on the 
ground by a series of ninety monuments and bronze markers. 

Throueh cooperation with the City of York, channel lines 
were established along the Codorus Creek in that City, a distance 
of 2.2 miles. These lines were defined bv ordinance of the Citv 
nnd approved by the Water and Power Resources Board. The 
survey used in defining these lines and upon which the necessary 
hvdraulic calculations were based, was made by the Water Supply 
Commission several years ago. 

Surveys and engineering studies are being made and plans be!ng 
prepared leading to the establishment of channel lines along the 
Shenango River in the Cities of New Castle and Sharon and prelimi- 
nary work has been started in other cities. Lines have heretofore 
been established along the Conemaugh and Stony Creek rivers in 
Johnstown, Neshannock Creek, New Castle and Dunbar Creek in 
the Borrough of Brownsville. 

Flood Survei/ — Allegheny and Monongahela R timers 

In accordance with an Act approved June 14, 1923, an agreement 
was executed on August 6, 1925 between the Secretary of War and 
the Water and Power Resources Board relative to a survey of the 
Allegheny and Monongahela river, with a view to the control of 
floods therein, lender this agreement, the War Department will, 
with the cooperation of the Board, make examinations, investigations 
and surveys of said rivers and prepare plans and estimates of cost 
for controlling flood waters, the expense of said work to be borne 
in equal shares by the United States and the Commonwealth, the 
total expense to the Commonwealth not to exceed $25,000.00. This 
work was started in September, 1925, and has been progressing 
satisfactorily, although not completed at the time of the prepara- 
tion of this report. 



/ 



No. 7 



DEPARTMENT OF FORESTS AND WATERS 



55 



54 



REPORT OF THE 



Oft. Ooc. 



Plfrnatuning Reservoir Project 

Work on the Pymatuning Reservoir Project during the past two 
years has consisted largely in the administration of the land acquired 
by .the Commonwealth, the rental of said lands and sale of timber 
thereon, the maintenance and operati(jn of stream gaging stations 
and the purchase of additional land with the accumulation of funds 
from rentals. 

Important additional legislation with respect to the project was 
enacted in 1925. The Act of April 16th authorizes counties, cities, 
boroug-hs, towns and towmships to appropriate and borrow money 
for use by the Commonwealth in the construction and completion 
of any project or improvement authorized by law for the conserva- 
tion of water and control of floods, and provides for the expenditure 
and re-payment of such moneys by the Commonwealth. Section V 
of this Act provides that, ''The Department of Forests and Waters 
shall have full power to use and expend the fund-> advanced by 
municipalities under the provisions of this Act on the projects and 
improvements designated in the same manner as any funds hereto 
fore or hereafter appropriated by the Commonwealth, for the con- 
struction and completion of said project or improvement where au- 
thorized to be expended by law." No such moneys may be appro- 
priated, borrowed or advanced to the Commonwealth by any such 
municipality, however, excei)t for an expenditure on a project or 
improvement which has been, prior to the prs age of th? Act, au- 
thorized by law to be constructed and completed by the Common- 
wealth for the conservati(Mi of water and the control of floods. The 
Commonwealth declares in the Act its intention to repay without 
interest to the municipalities respectively all moneys advanced in 
not more than fifteen equal biennial installments commencing not 
later than three years after any such moneys are advanced. 

The Act of May 14, 1925, repealed all previous general acts relat- 
ing to the Pymatuning Reservoir Project and combined the provi- 
sions of the former acts under one law. lender the provisions of 
this law all of the authority vested in the Water Supply Commi - 
sion of Pennsylvania, with respect to the Pymatunin<r l^roject. w\is 
transferrcnl t(^ the Dejiartment of T'\^rests and \\'aters acting throu h 
the Water and Power Resources Board. 

Several joint meetings have been held by the members of the 
Water and Power Resources Board and the Shenango and Beaver 
Valley Conservation Association, an organization having for its ob- 
ject the completion of the Pymatuning -Project. A field examination 
was made by these bodies of the area to be Hooded by the propo-ed 
reservoir and plans for raising the moneys necessary to complete 



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ihe project have been discussed. A conference wa« held by the 
representatives of the Board and of the Highway Departments of 
Pennsylvania and Ohio, relative to the road relocations and so as 
to satisfactorily arrange for interstate highways. 

Detailed estimates of the cost of the project have been made on 
the basis of existing- prices for May, 1925, including all items which 
are liable to enter into the work of building the dam and spillway, 
highway and railroad changes, purchase of the remaining lands, and 
the clearing- and preparation of the basin for the reservoir. A re- 
vised report, showing- the needs, results, and benefits to be derived 
from the completed project, have been prepared and i)laced in the 
hands of the printer for publication. 

The Board is authorized under an Act ])assed in 1923, to lease 
the lands purchased for the project and to sell excess land, build- 
ings and timber. Seven tracts of timber have been s )ld for a toLal 
sum of $3,350 and the sale of three unnecessary buildings has 
netted an additional $230. For the year ending April 1, 1925, 
money received from rental for seventy-two parcels of land under 
lease has amounted to $6,459.75. For the year ending April 1, 
1926, rentals from seventy-three tracts under lease amounted to 
$6,421. Every property, with building improvements upon it, has 
been kept under lease for the past two years and many other tracts 
have been rented for pasturage purposes. The lands not under 
lease are of such a character that they are not suitable for uses 
other than hunting, fishing, tn'pping, and berry picking and have 
been set aside for recreational use. From the accumulation of 
funds derived under the Act of 1923, advantageous purchase has 
been made of one hundred sixtv-seven acres of additional land 
required for the project. 

Public Hearings 

The Bo?rd held. durin<r the two-\ear period, forty-sexen public 
hearings in connection with a|)plications before it. or matter^ re- 
ferred to it by the De]\artment of Forests and \\'aters.